Chapter 4b – Battle of Morval

Battle of Morval - 25-28 Sep 1916 A number of minor operations were undertaken in the days following the battle of Flers-Courcelette, with the specific purpose of capturing the objectives that had not…

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Footnotes

  1.  Military History Encyclopedia on the Web (HistoryofWar.org) 
  2.  John Jackson (1st Cameron Highlanders, 1st Bde, 1st Divn) vividly describes the Bazentin le Petit and High Wood area in his published diary [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,79}"]
  3.  Crescent Alley: Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: 33.d 
  4. 26th Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d
  5.  Eaucourt L’Abbaye:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c 
  6. Destremont Farm: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.a
  7.  The village of Le Sars straddles the Albert-Baupaume road: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.16.c 
  8. This journey is described in Norman Gladden’s book [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,105}"]
  9.  North & South Durham trenches lay to the south of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d & 21.c 
  10.  Rutherford Alley was a communication trench running north towards Le Sars:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.22.c 
  11.  Eaucourt d’Abbaye lies approximately three quarters of a mile south east of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c
  12.  D16 – Map Reference: M23c.2.4 and D8- Map Reference: M23.c.3.7. [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,42}"]
  13.  Pte William Wood 4/5150 (b. Kettering
  14.  21st, 22nd, 23rd & 24th London Regt (142nd Bde, 47th Divn) 
  15.  Pte Maynard Frank Nunn 4/5010 (e. Cambridge
  16.  10th & 11th NF & 12th DLI (68th Bde, 23rd Divn) 
  17.  Pte Richard Henry Jacobs  4/5102 (e. West London
  18. James Henry Newman 4/5257 (b. Norwich) (e. Norwich)
  19.  During the First World War, the YMCA supports the troops. YMCA huts provide soldiers with food and a place to rest on the frontline or at home in military camps and railway stations. The YMCA embarked on a massive education programme for soldiers, which eventually becomes the Army Education Corps. [zotpressInText item="{IS6FHCKS}"]
  20. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,125}"] 
  21. D2 (Female 539) [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,47}"]
  22.  Soldiers Died in the Great War (SDITGW) and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)
  23.  Sgt William Moffat MM (7/1878) is buried in Abbeville Communal Cemetery Extension (d.21 Sep 1916). William and Margaret Moffatt resided at 24, Back Clayton Street in Bedlington, Northumberland. William had served in the South African War 
  24. 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken
  25. The camp at the south-east corner of Mametz Wood
  26.  5th Cameronians (26th Bde, 9th Divn)
  27.  1st, 2nd 3rd and 4th South African Regts (South African Bde, 9th Divn) 
  28.  RFA positions – 18 pounders etc 
  29. John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) Into Battle - A Soldiers Diary of the Great War [zotpressInText item="{ZZCPTDHK,68}"]
  30. 27th Bde - 6th KOSB, 11th & 12th Royal Scots, 9th Cameronians ( 9th Divn)
  31. [zotpressInText item="{62F7X4R4,48}"]
  32. 26th Bde - 8th Black Watch, 7th Seaforth Highlanders, 5th Cameron Highlanders, 10th Argyle & Sutherland Highlanders (9th Divn)
  33. Winston Churchill (1871-1947) was no relation of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, but coincidently both had political careers, were noted amateur painters, attended service colleges and briefly served simultaneously as officers in their respective countries' armed forces
  34.  When the Barrage Lifts: A Topographical History and Commentary on the Battle of the Somme 1916. [zotpressInText item="{TNPW6P94,115}"]
  35.  Dixies were large oval shaped cooking pots
  36.  Tinned meat & vegetable (M&V) stew was provided in 20 to 24 oz tins. The quality varied considerably from brand to brand, however the Maconochie Brothers brand was considered one of the better ones 
  37.  Pte John Calvert Sowerby (4/2799) (b. Denton) (e. Haltwhistle). John is buried at St Sever Cemetery Extension and commemorated on the Haltwhistle Memorial 
  38. Pte Frederick William Brett (4/5194), (e. Norfolk Regt) was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then the 4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  39.  Likely to have been 8th Black Watch (26th Bde) 
  40. Pte William Lewis (4/3814) (e. Nottingham). Thiepval Memorial, Somme
  41.  Pte William George Little (4/2189) (b. Bingfield) (e. Hexham). 4th Reserve Bn on 1st Sep 16. Thiepval Memorial, Somme 
  42. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,140}"]
  43.  Red and green flares were usually fired from a Very pistol for signalling purposes and white flares to illuminate an area at night 
  44. An SOS Barrage
  45.  Pte Edgar Kaye (4/5068) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  46. Pte James Wray (4/5058) (b. Longwood, Yorks) (e. Huddersfield) was posted to the 4th from the 8th NF (8/29015). He is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  47. Pte Harold Wilby (4/5063) is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France
  48. Pte Edward Thomas Gillings (4/5123) (b. Gillings, Pembrokeshire) (e. Great Yarmouth) had previously served with the 5th NF (5/5804). He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  49.  Pte William James Goodrum (4/5066) (b. Great Yarmouth) (e. Newcastle) transferred to the 4th from the 8th NF (4/4468) 
  50. Pte Frederick Claxton (4/5212) (e. Norwich) was posted to the 4th NF from the East Yorks Regt (4/7921) and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  51. Pte John Elliott (4/3343)
  52.  Pte Enoch Shipley (4/5138) (e. Norfolk Regt (1591) Melton Constable, Norfolk) and was subsequently posted to the NF 
  53.  Pte William Surtees Leathard (4/4191) (b. Prudhoe) (e. Hexham) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  54. Pte William Lewis (4/3814), William George Little (4/2189) and George Edward Ward (  ) are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  55.  L/Cpl John Robertson (4/1369) (b. Newcastle) (e. Prudhoe) was wounded early 1915, reported to the 3/4th NF on 25 Jun 15 and drafted back to France 18 Sep 15. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  56. Allandale man L/Cpl Thomas Armstrong (4/1997) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  57.  Norman Gladden [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,138}"]
  58.  Wooden and metal sections or frames were often constructed behind the lines in RE workshops to enable the quick construction of dugouts in the trenches. Large packing crates were also used as shelters
  59.  Prudhoe man L/Cpl William Jackson (4/2058) was a recipient of the Military Medal and is buried in Dernancourt Communal Cemetery Extension 
  60.  Warlencourt Line: Presumed to mean the Gird Line 
  61. Haltwhistle man John Albert Nicholson (4/2693) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. John was first taken on 3/4th NF strength - 11th Jun 15 
  62.  Pte Fred Willis (4/5157) (e. Northampton) served with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt prior to the NF. He is buried in Caterpillar Valley Cemetery near Longueval
  63.  The 50th Division 1914 - 1919 [zotpressInText item="{4R6FADJ9,}"]
  64.  The French sugar beet industry was a direct outcome of Britain’s blockade of French Ports during the Napoleonic Wars, which prevented the import of Sugar Cane. Napoleon decreed that French farmers should grow sugar beet and within two years approximately 160,000 acres were in cultivation and some 330 small refineries were producing 3,350 tons of sugar. The Somme was a major producer supporting more than 120 sugar refineries located in the Department (Inventory of Sugar Refineries) 
  65. The German 5th Grenadier Guard Regiment was of Prussian origin and part of the 4th Guard Infantry Divn
  66.  Duckboards (wooden planking) were used as trench flooring or to make paths across muddy ground 
  67. Pte John Clarke (4/3299) (b. Wigton, Cumberland) (e. Newcastle). John is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  68.  Pte Daniel Walden (4/5141) (e. Northwood, Middlesex). Daniel was transferred to the NF from the Norfolk Regt 
  69. Pte Harold Hiscock (4/5397) (b. York) (e. Hexham). Harold is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  70.  Pte Wilfred Hardwick (4/3685) (b. Mansfield, Notts) (e. Mansfield). Wilfred is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France 
  71.  A ‘Chinese’ barrage was a bogus attack 
  72.  Edward Grey. Lawson 
  73. Fletcher Hugh Lionel Woods
  74.  Sgt James R Richardson (1430) from Rothbury 
  75.  A/Sgt J. Piercy (290418) (b. Berwick on Tweed)( e. Alnwick)
  76. Capt Roger Cranage
  77. 2nd Lt T. Bonner
  78. 2nd Lt William Henry Fisher was drafted to France on 20 July 1916 
  79. Capt John Wilfred Robinson, the brother of Frank Robinson (4th NF) and George Sydney Robinson (1st Buffs) originated from Hexham. (Grint, p. 160) He was wounded in April 1915, but after returning to service with the 3/4th NF was drafted back to the 1/4th on the 4th of Aug 1915. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France. George was to die on the 26th April 18 
  80. Major N. I. Wright [note] returned to the front line at 11pm to reorganise the men in preparation for a fresh attack. For this task they had a 4th NF Coy and the 7th NF on the left flank and a 4th NF Coy and around thirty men from 'A' Coy 7th NF .

    The 4th NF and three strong bombing parties attacked again at 12.30amh,

    Even though suffering from the agony of trench foot, Pte Norman Gladden (7th NF) was ordered up into the front line:

    'The low trench was crammed with men – troops from our D Company and from the 4th Battalion. The parapet was lined with soldiers, their fixed bayonets glinting in the dimly lit night. An attack was being staged. I was struck dumb with amazement. The men were already clambering out of the trench. Hardly had the first man mounted the parapet when the enemy, as though sensing something unusual, sent up a myriad of lights which, bursting overhead, converted night into day. The steel-helmeted figures of the front wave stood out in sharp relief against the unearthly blue illumination. While we hesitated, bewildered by the suddenness of this manoeuvre, an officer pushed his way along the trench threatening with drawn revolver anyone who held back from going over. He pointed at me. I was flabbergasted. There must be some mistake: we had been told nothing. My astonished terror gave place to anger at the injustice of the whole business. At that moment I would sooner have killed the officer than any German' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,162}"].

    Gladden clambered out of the trench with the support wave of men, but was soon forced to seek the shelter of a large depression in the ground to evade the machine gun fire. The ground was constantly illuminated by the rise and fall of an assortment of red, green and yellow signal flares against a backdrop of artillery gun flashes:

    'The machine guns traversed back and forth, shearing the ground around us like mighty scythes. Rifles cracked incessantly and bullets spanged into the mud near our heads. In front we could hear the bursting of hand grenades hurled by the enemy, as much in fright as at specific targets, since there is little evidence that our front wave had got so far. Heavier shells crashed around us, but mainly behind since they were directed against the trench we had left. We were between two fires' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,163}"].

    The shell fire died down once the enemy were convinced that the attack had failed, enabling Gladden and his fellow survivors to crawl back towards Snag Trench in a desperate attempt to reach cover before daylight exposed their predicament. Col. Gibson and Maj. Wright had long since recognised the attack had failed and had set the occupants of Snag Trench to work preparing it for defence before returning to Bn HQ at 2am .

    The fusiliers endured heavy shelling all day until they were finally relieved by the 4th East Yorkshires at 2.45am on the 16th and were able to move back to the Flers Line. The 7th NF stayed in the front line and Fisher found himself in command of the remnants of the Bn:

    'We now had a trench strength of one officer and seventy-six men including the carrying party which came up during the night. The day passed quietly, and in the afternoon we were ordered to withdraw to the Abbaye supports. Here we found a ghastly sight. The trench was almost obliterated by shell-fire. The half of "C" Company which had remained behind had apparently scattered in depth in an attempt to avoid the well marked position of the trench but to little purpose. We had almost reached the limits of human endurance and in one case, which I sent to the dressing station, the mental strain had proved too much. During the evening the battalion was relieved, bringing to an end this fatal tour. Never in my comparatively long service with the battalion did we meet with such hardship and horrors as on this occasion, or, I believe, were so few left to tell the tale' [zotpressInText item="{S4S4TVNA}"].

    Norman Gladden’s group was relieved by the 4th East Yorks during the evening and also headed for the relative safety of the Flers Switch line:

    'We came at last to the ridge where we were to leave Pioneer Alley for the open. In front of one of the sandbagged dug-outs each man was served with hot coffee, a draught of thick black liquid that brought anew warmth into my body and made me offer thanks to heaven.

    The line moved on, a straggling weary snake stretching into the gloom, our figures throwing exaggerated shadows from the flares at dug-out openings. Two lone purposeful shells screamed over from the enemy, striking the ground not far from the spot where coffee was being served. After escaping so much, seven more of our company were added to the roll of death and four others were carried away on stretchers; the unkindest blow at the very edge of safety' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,166}"].

    Twenty-four hours of fighting claimed the lives of Capt. John Robinson and 2nd Lt Larken [note] 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken was only drafted to the Bn on the 17th of October 

  81. 2nd Lt Alan James Derrick (d. 15 Nov 1916) 7th NF Thiepval Memorial
  82.  Pte William James Newman (4/9048) (b. Wandsworth, Surrey) was transferred from the Norfolk Regt. Commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  83.  Pte Arthur Ernest Pyatt (4/5107), aged 25, and his brother Henry (4/5106), aged 34, enlisted in the Norfolk Regt at Hackney Baths. Thiepval Memorial 
  84.  Pte Joseph Davies (4/5304) was transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Joseph is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  85.  Pte Ernest Leopold Douglas (4/5133) served previously with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt, Norfolk Regt and 5th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  86. Pte Alfred George Woodward (4/5156) was transferred from the 1/4th East Yorks Regt. Alfred is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France
  87.  Pte Richard Dover (4/5379) (b. Brandon, Co Durham) served previously with the DLI. Richard is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  88. Pte Frank Bradbury (4/5301) (b. Saddleworth, Yorkshire) and transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Frank is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  89. Pte Bertie William Adcock (4/9007) served previously with the Norfolk Regt. Bertie is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.
  90. Pte John Glass (4/6656) (Scotswood, Newcastle) was transferred from the 1/6th NF. John is buried at Warlencourt British Cemetery
  91.  Pte Herbert Albert Boast (4/5206) (b.Norwich) and enlisted in the Norfolk Regt. He was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then 1/4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  92. Sgt William Anthony Charlton (4/35) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham). William is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  93.  The 10th (Service) Bn Gloucester Regiment were part of the 1st Bde, 1st Divn 
  94.  The Bombing School was most likely to have been near the village of Montigny-sur-l'Hallue, approximately nine miles west of Albert
  95. Lt Col Scott Jackson
  96. The Royal Engineers raised a total of eleven Labour Bns. They consisted of navvies, tradesmen and semi-skilled men and were used in construction of rear defence lines and similar works
  97. Bns were equipped with handcarts for the Lewis guns. Pack ponies -
  98.  The 4th Army Infantry School of Instruction was in Flixecourt - 
  99.  2nd Lt Bernard Roger Philip Hawken 
  100. Pierrots were at the height of popularity in seaside resorts at the end of the 19th Century, providing family orientated shows with music, song, dance, acrobatics and comedy sketches  
  101. 2nd Lt Coatsworth
  102. The 2nd Welsh Regiment was part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn. The Bn had been on the Western Front since August 1914
  103. 1st and 3rd Bdes (1st Divn)
  104.  The 1st South Wales Borderers were part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn and had been on the Western Front since August 1914 
  105. Captain, later Lt Col. Hugh Liddell, DSO, MC (1/7th NF)
  106. Listed in the London Gazette
  107.  London Gazette (1917) Capt. C. G. Arkwright M.C. 4th NF, to be acting Major whilst serving on HQ of a Bn from 20 Oct 18 to 30 Mar 19. Date: 2 Dec 19 Issue number: 31673 (Gazette, London, p. 15037). Northumberland Fusiliers- Lt. C. G. Arkwright M.C, to be acting Major whilst employed as Major on HQ. 11 Aug 17. Lt. D. T. Turner to be acting Capt whilst commanding a Coy. 1917 published on the 21 Sep 17. Page 17 of 20
  108.  2nd Lt William Maxson Collingwood Wilson 
  109. M.24.b.6.6 - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24
  110.  Fishtail bombs were a small trench mortar bomb used by the German Army 
  111. Pte Henry Spencer Beadle (4/5354) (b.e. Hessle, Yorks). Henry served previously with the 5th and 6th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  112.  Bayonet Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.18.d
  113.  Cobham Trench ran between the communication trenches Goose Alley and Turk Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24.c & N.13.c 
  114. The Minenwerfer was a German trench mortar
  115.  Cobham Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Reference M.24.c. The junction of Yarra Reserve with Yarra Avenue – Reference: M.24.d
  116. The 1st Northumbrian Field Coy Royal Engineers was renumbered the 446th Coy
  117. Clark’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57c SW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  118. Flers Reserve Trench -   Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0- 
  119. The 179th Tunnelling Coy was formed in the 3rd Army area in October 1915 
  120.  Factory Corner was the crossroads north of Flers taken by the New Zealand Divn on 25th Sep 1916: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: N.19.c.9.1
  121. Flers Reserve trench - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0
  122.  BP Dump
  123. Bazentin Circus - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.8.d 8.0
  124. High Wood Siding     - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  125. Clarke’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  126. Seven Elms dump - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.28.d
  127. ‘H’ Rations
  128. Private 12768 - Memoir of a Tommy - John Jackson [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,88}"]
  129. BP Dump – Langly Circus
  130. Canvas Camp -
  131.  Loupart Wood and Grevillers are approximately one mile north of the Butte De Warlencourt 
  132. A black frost was a dry freeze which kills and thus blackens vegetation because there is no protective layer of hoar frost
  133. The Regimental Aid Post (RAP) provided the first line of medical treatment for a wounded soldier.
  134. Coy HQ comprised the CO (Maj), 2 i/c (Capt), Coy Sergeant Major (CSM), Coy Quartermaster Sergeant (CQMS), two batmen and three drivers
  135.  Pte Arthur William Hannan (4/5425) ( b. Birstwith, Yorks). He was transferred to the 4th NF the 13th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  136.  Roye:  Lat/Long: 049 41’ 55 N  : 002 47’ 57 E
  137. Command Post PC Hedevaux: Belloy Map: Reference: N.27.c.5.4
  138. PC Buelow: Belloy Map: 62c and 62d - Ref: N.25.d.6.4
  139.  Boyau Bouchet trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.b
  140.  Argonne Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.27.d 
  141. French bomb store – Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.21.c.80
  142. Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.b
  143.  Bouchot: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a
  144.  Bois Damloup: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a.5.7
  145. Support trenches at the southern end of the sector:  Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.d
  146. Annamites Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref:  N.34.d
  147. Marchal Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.34.a
  148.  Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.33.b
  149.  Military History Encyclopedia on the Web (HistoryofWar.org) 
  150.  John Jackson (1st Cameron Highlanders, 1st Bde, 1st Divn) vividly describes the Bazentin le Petit and High Wood area in his published diary [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,79}"]
  151.  Crescent Alley: Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: 33.d 
  152. 26th Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d
  153.  Eaucourt L’Abbaye:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c 
  154. Destremont Farm: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.a
  155.  The village of Le Sars straddles the Albert-Baupaume road: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.16.c 
  156. This journey is described in Norman Gladden’s book [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,105}"]
  157.  North & South Durham trenches lay to the south of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d & 21.c 
  158.  Rutherford Alley was a communication trench running north towards Le Sars:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.22.c 
  159.  Eaucourt d’Abbaye lies approximately three quarters of a mile south east of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c
  160.  D16 – Map Reference: M23c.2.4 and D8- Map Reference: M23.c.3.7. [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,42}"]
  161.  Pte William Wood 4/5150 (b. Kettering
  162.  21st, 22nd, 23rd & 24th London Regt (142nd Bde, 47th Divn) 
  163.  Pte Maynard Frank Nunn 4/5010 (e. Cambridge
  164.  10th & 11th NF & 12th DLI (68th Bde, 23rd Divn) 
  165.  Pte Richard Henry Jacobs  4/5102 (e. West London
  166. James Henry Newman 4/5257 (b. Norwich) (e. Norwich)
  167.  During the First World War, the YMCA supports the troops. YMCA huts provide soldiers with food and a place to rest on the frontline or at home in military camps and railway stations. The YMCA embarked on a massive education programme for soldiers, which eventually becomes the Army Education Corps. [zotpressInText item="{IS6FHCKS}"]
  168. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,125}"] 
  169. D2 (Female 539) [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,47}"]
  170.  Soldiers Died in the Great War (SDITGW) and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)
  171.  Sgt William Moffat MM (7/1878) is buried in Abbeville Communal Cemetery Extension (d.21 Sep 1916). William and Margaret Moffatt resided at 24, Back Clayton Street in Bedlington, Northumberland. William had served in the South African War 
  172. 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken
  173. The camp at the south-east corner of Mametz Wood
  174.  5th Cameronians (26th Bde, 9th Divn)
  175.  1st, 2nd 3rd and 4th South African Regts (South African Bde, 9th Divn) 
  176.  RFA positions – 18 pounders etc 
  177. John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) Into Battle - A Soldiers Diary of the Great War [zotpressInText item="{ZZCPTDHK,68}"]
  178. 27th Bde - 6th KOSB, 11th & 12th Royal Scots, 9th Cameronians ( 9th Divn)
  179. [zotpressInText item="{62F7X4R4,48}"]
  180. 26th Bde - 8th Black Watch, 7th Seaforth Highlanders, 5th Cameron Highlanders, 10th Argyle & Sutherland Highlanders (9th Divn)
  181. Winston Churchill (1871-1947) was no relation of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, but coincidently both had political careers, were noted amateur painters, attended service colleges and briefly served simultaneously as officers in their respective countries' armed forces
  182.  When the Barrage Lifts: A Topographical History and Commentary on the Battle of the Somme 1916. [zotpressInText item="{TNPW6P94,115}"]
  183.  Dixies were large oval shaped cooking pots
  184.  Tinned meat & vegetable (M&V) stew was provided in 20 to 24 oz tins. The quality varied considerably from brand to brand, however the Maconochie Brothers brand was considered one of the better ones 
  185.  Pte John Calvert Sowerby (4/2799) (b. Denton) (e. Haltwhistle). John is buried at St Sever Cemetery Extension and commemorated on the Haltwhistle Memorial 
  186. Pte Frederick William Brett (4/5194), (e. Norfolk Regt) was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then the 4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  187.  Likely to have been 8th Black Watch (26th Bde) 
  188. Pte William Lewis (4/3814) (e. Nottingham). Thiepval Memorial, Somme
  189.  Pte William George Little (4/2189) (b. Bingfield) (e. Hexham). 4th Reserve Bn on 1st Sep 16. Thiepval Memorial, Somme 
  190. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,140}"]
  191.  Red and green flares were usually fired from a Very pistol for signalling purposes and white flares to illuminate an area at night 
  192. An SOS Barrage
  193.  Pte Edgar Kaye (4/5068) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  194. Pte James Wray (4/5058) (b. Longwood, Yorks) (e. Huddersfield) was posted to the 4th from the 8th NF (8/29015). He is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  195. Pte Harold Wilby (4/5063) is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France
  196. Pte Edward Thomas Gillings (4/5123) (b. Gillings, Pembrokeshire) (e. Great Yarmouth) had previously served with the 5th NF (5/5804). He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  197.  Pte William James Goodrum (4/5066) (b. Great Yarmouth) (e. Newcastle) transferred to the 4th from the 8th NF (4/4468) 
  198. Pte Frederick Claxton (4/5212) (e. Norwich) was posted to the 4th NF from the East Yorks Regt (4/7921) and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  199. Pte John Elliott (4/3343)
  200.  Pte Enoch Shipley (4/5138) (e. Norfolk Regt (1591) Melton Constable, Norfolk) and was subsequently posted to the NF 
  201.  Pte William Surtees Leathard (4/4191) (b. Prudhoe) (e. Hexham) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  202. Pte William Lewis (4/3814), William George Little (4/2189) and George Edward Ward (  ) are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  203.  L/Cpl John Robertson (4/1369) (b. Newcastle) (e. Prudhoe) was wounded early 1915, reported to the 3/4th NF on 25 Jun 15 and drafted back to France 18 Sep 15. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  204. Allandale man L/Cpl Thomas Armstrong (4/1997) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  205.  Norman Gladden [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,138}"]
  206.  Wooden and metal sections or frames were often constructed behind the lines in RE workshops to enable the quick construction of dugouts in the trenches. Large packing crates were also used as shelters
  207.  Prudhoe man L/Cpl William Jackson (4/2058) was a recipient of the Military Medal and is buried in Dernancourt Communal Cemetery Extension 
  208.  Warlencourt Line: Presumed to mean the Gird Line 
  209. Haltwhistle man John Albert Nicholson (4/2693) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. John was first taken on 3/4th NF strength - 11th Jun 15 
  210.  Pte Fred Willis (4/5157) (e. Northampton) served with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt prior to the NF. He is buried in Caterpillar Valley Cemetery near Longueval
  211.  The 50th Division 1914 - 1919 [zotpressInText item="{4R6FADJ9,}"]
  212.  The French sugar beet industry was a direct outcome of Britain’s blockade of French Ports during the Napoleonic Wars, which prevented the import of Sugar Cane. Napoleon decreed that French farmers should grow sugar beet and within two years approximately 160,000 acres were in cultivation and some 330 small refineries were producing 3,350 tons of sugar. The Somme was a major producer supporting more than 120 sugar refineries located in the Department (Inventory of Sugar Refineries) 
  213. The German 5th Grenadier Guard Regiment was of Prussian origin and part of the 4th Guard Infantry Divn
  214.  Duckboards (wooden planking) were used as trench flooring or to make paths across muddy ground 
  215. Pte John Clarke (4/3299) (b. Wigton, Cumberland) (e. Newcastle). John is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  216.  Pte Daniel Walden (4/5141) (e. Northwood, Middlesex). Daniel was transferred to the NF from the Norfolk Regt 
  217. Pte Harold Hiscock (4/5397) (b. York) (e. Hexham). Harold is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  218.  Pte Wilfred Hardwick (4/3685) (b. Mansfield, Notts) (e. Mansfield). Wilfred is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France 
  219.  A ‘Chinese’ barrage was a bogus attack 
  220.  Edward Grey. Lawson 
  221. Fletcher Hugh Lionel Woods
  222.  Sgt James R Richardson (1430) from Rothbury 
  223.  A/Sgt J. Piercy (290418) (b. Berwick on Tweed)( e. Alnwick)
  224. Capt Roger Cranage
  225. 2nd Lt T. Bonner
  226. 2nd Lt William Henry Fisher was drafted to France on 20 July 1916 
  227. Capt John Wilfred Robinson, the brother of Frank Robinson (4th NF) and George Sydney Robinson (1st Buffs) originated from Hexham. (Grint, p. 160) He was wounded in April 1915, but after returning to service with the 3/4th NF was drafted back to the 1/4th on the 4th of Aug 1915. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France. George was to die on the 26th April 18 
  228. Major N. I. Wright [note] returned to the front line at 11pm to reorganise the men in preparation for a fresh attack. For this task they had a 4th NF Coy and the 7th NF on the left flank and a 4th NF Coy and around thirty men from 'A' Coy 7th NF .

    The 4th NF and three strong bombing parties attacked again at 12.30amh,

    Even though suffering from the agony of trench foot, Pte Norman Gladden (7th NF) was ordered up into the front line:

    'The low trench was crammed with men – troops from our D Company and from the 4th Battalion. The parapet was lined with soldiers, their fixed bayonets glinting in the dimly lit night. An attack was being staged. I was struck dumb with amazement. The men were already clambering out of the trench. Hardly had the first man mounted the parapet when the enemy, as though sensing something unusual, sent up a myriad of lights which, bursting overhead, converted night into day. The steel-helmeted figures of the front wave stood out in sharp relief against the unearthly blue illumination. While we hesitated, bewildered by the suddenness of this manoeuvre, an officer pushed his way along the trench threatening with drawn revolver anyone who held back from going over. He pointed at me. I was flabbergasted. There must be some mistake: we had been told nothing. My astonished terror gave place to anger at the injustice of the whole business. At that moment I would sooner have killed the officer than any German' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,162}"].

    Gladden clambered out of the trench with the support wave of men, but was soon forced to seek the shelter of a large depression in the ground to evade the machine gun fire. The ground was constantly illuminated by the rise and fall of an assortment of red, green and yellow signal flares against a backdrop of artillery gun flashes:

    'The machine guns traversed back and forth, shearing the ground around us like mighty scythes. Rifles cracked incessantly and bullets spanged into the mud near our heads. In front we could hear the bursting of hand grenades hurled by the enemy, as much in fright as at specific targets, since there is little evidence that our front wave had got so far. Heavier shells crashed around us, but mainly behind since they were directed against the trench we had left. We were between two fires' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,163}"].

    The shell fire died down once the enemy were convinced that the attack had failed, enabling Gladden and his fellow survivors to crawl back towards Snag Trench in a desperate attempt to reach cover before daylight exposed their predicament. Col. Gibson and Maj. Wright had long since recognised the attack had failed and had set the occupants of Snag Trench to work preparing it for defence before returning to Bn HQ at 2am .

    The fusiliers endured heavy shelling all day until they were finally relieved by the 4th East Yorkshires at 2.45am on the 16th and were able to move back to the Flers Line. The 7th NF stayed in the front line and Fisher found himself in command of the remnants of the Bn:

    'We now had a trench strength of one officer and seventy-six men including the carrying party which came up during the night. The day passed quietly, and in the afternoon we were ordered to withdraw to the Abbaye supports. Here we found a ghastly sight. The trench was almost obliterated by shell-fire. The half of "C" Company which had remained behind had apparently scattered in depth in an attempt to avoid the well marked position of the trench but to little purpose. We had almost reached the limits of human endurance and in one case, which I sent to the dressing station, the mental strain had proved too much. During the evening the battalion was relieved, bringing to an end this fatal tour. Never in my comparatively long service with the battalion did we meet with such hardship and horrors as on this occasion, or, I believe, were so few left to tell the tale' [zotpressInText item="{S4S4TVNA}"].

    Norman Gladden’s group was relieved by the 4th East Yorks during the evening and also headed for the relative safety of the Flers Switch line:

    'We came at last to the ridge where we were to leave Pioneer Alley for the open. In front of one of the sandbagged dug-outs each man was served with hot coffee, a draught of thick black liquid that brought anew warmth into my body and made me offer thanks to heaven.

    The line moved on, a straggling weary snake stretching into the gloom, our figures throwing exaggerated shadows from the flares at dug-out openings. Two lone purposeful shells screamed over from the enemy, striking the ground not far from the spot where coffee was being served. After escaping so much, seven more of our company were added to the roll of death and four others were carried away on stretchers; the unkindest blow at the very edge of safety' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,166}"].

    Twenty-four hours of fighting claimed the lives of Capt. John Robinson and 2nd Lt Larken [note] 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken was only drafted to the Bn on the 17th of October 

  229. 2nd Lt Alan James Derrick (d. 15 Nov 1916) 7th NF Thiepval Memorial
  230.  Pte William James Newman (4/9048) (b. Wandsworth, Surrey) was transferred from the Norfolk Regt. Commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  231.  Pte Arthur Ernest Pyatt (4/5107), aged 25, and his brother Henry (4/5106), aged 34, enlisted in the Norfolk Regt at Hackney Baths. Thiepval Memorial 
  232.  Pte Joseph Davies (4/5304) was transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Joseph is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  233.  Pte Ernest Leopold Douglas (4/5133) served previously with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt, Norfolk Regt and 5th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  234. Pte Alfred George Woodward (4/5156) was transferred from the 1/4th East Yorks Regt. Alfred is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France
  235.  Pte Richard Dover (4/5379) (b. Brandon, Co Durham) served previously with the DLI. Richard is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  236. Pte Frank Bradbury (4/5301) (b. Saddleworth, Yorkshire) and transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Frank is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  237. Pte Bertie William Adcock (4/9007) served previously with the Norfolk Regt. Bertie is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.
  238. Pte John Glass (4/6656) (Scotswood, Newcastle) was transferred from the 1/6th NF. John is buried at Warlencourt British Cemetery
  239.  Pte Herbert Albert Boast (4/5206) (b.Norwich) and enlisted in the Norfolk Regt. He was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then 1/4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  240. Sgt William Anthony Charlton (4/35) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham). William is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  241.  The 10th (Service) Bn Gloucester Regiment were part of the 1st Bde, 1st Divn 
  242.  The Bombing School was most likely to have been near the village of Montigny-sur-l'Hallue, approximately nine miles west of Albert
  243. Lt Col Scott Jackson
  244. The Royal Engineers raised a total of eleven Labour Bns. They consisted of navvies, tradesmen and semi-skilled men and were used in construction of rear defence lines and similar works
  245. Bns were equipped with handcarts for the Lewis guns. Pack ponies -
  246.  The 4th Army Infantry School of Instruction was in Flixecourt - 
  247.  2nd Lt Bernard Roger Philip Hawken 
  248. Pierrots were at the height of popularity in seaside resorts at the end of the 19th Century, providing family orientated shows with music, song, dance, acrobatics and comedy sketches  
  249. 2nd Lt Coatsworth
  250. The 2nd Welsh Regiment was part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn. The Bn had been on the Western Front since August 1914
  251. 1st and 3rd Bdes (1st Divn)
  252.  The 1st South Wales Borderers were part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn and had been on the Western Front since August 1914 
  253. Captain, later Lt Col. Hugh Liddell, DSO, MC (1/7th NF)
  254. Listed in the London Gazette
  255.  London Gazette (1917) Capt. C. G. Arkwright M.C. 4th NF, to be acting Major whilst serving on HQ of a Bn from 20 Oct 18 to 30 Mar 19. Date: 2 Dec 19 Issue number: 31673 (Gazette, London, p. 15037). Northumberland Fusiliers- Lt. C. G. Arkwright M.C, to be acting Major whilst employed as Major on HQ. 11 Aug 17. Lt. D. T. Turner to be acting Capt whilst commanding a Coy. 1917 published on the 21 Sep 17. Page 17 of 20
  256.  2nd Lt William Maxson Collingwood Wilson 
  257. M.24.b.6.6 - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24
  258.  Fishtail bombs were a small trench mortar bomb used by the German Army 
  259. Pte Henry Spencer Beadle (4/5354) (b.e. Hessle, Yorks). Henry served previously with the 5th and 6th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  260.  Bayonet Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.18.d
  261.  Cobham Trench ran between the communication trenches Goose Alley and Turk Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24.c & N.13.c 
  262. The Minenwerfer was a German trench mortar
  263.  Cobham Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Reference M.24.c. The junction of Yarra Reserve with Yarra Avenue – Reference: M.24.d
  264. The 1st Northumbrian Field Coy Royal Engineers was renumbered the 446th Coy
  265. Clark’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57c SW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  266. Flers Reserve Trench -   Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0- 
  267. The 179th Tunnelling Coy was formed in the 3rd Army area in October 1915 
  268.  Factory Corner was the crossroads north of Flers taken by the New Zealand Divn on 25th Sep 1916: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: N.19.c.9.1
  269. Flers Reserve trench - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0
  270.  BP Dump
  271. Bazentin Circus - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.8.d 8.0
  272. High Wood Siding     - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  273. Clarke’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  274. Seven Elms dump - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.28.d
  275. ‘H’ Rations
  276. Private 12768 - Memoir of a Tommy - John Jackson [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,88}"]
  277. BP Dump – Langly Circus
  278. Canvas Camp -
  279.  Loupart Wood and Grevillers are approximately one mile north of the Butte De Warlencourt 
  280. A black frost was a dry freeze which kills and thus blackens vegetation because there is no protective layer of hoar frost
  281. The Regimental Aid Post (RAP) provided the first line of medical treatment for a wounded soldier.
  282. Coy HQ comprised the CO (Maj), 2 i/c (Capt), Coy Sergeant Major (CSM), Coy Quartermaster Sergeant (CQMS), two batmen and three drivers
  283.  Pte Arthur William Hannan (4/5425) ( b. Birstwith, Yorks). He was transferred to the 4th NF the 13th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  284.  Roye:  Lat/Long: 049 41’ 55 N  : 002 47’ 57 E
  285. Command Post PC Hedevaux: Belloy Map: Reference: N.27.c.5.4
  286. PC Buelow: Belloy Map: 62c and 62d - Ref: N.25.d.6.4
  287.  Boyau Bouchet trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.b
  288.  Argonne Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.27.d 
  289. French bomb store – Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.21.c.80
  290. Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.b
  291.  Bouchot: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a
  292.  Bois Damloup: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a.5.7
  293. Support trenches at the southern end of the sector:  Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.d
  294. Annamites Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref:  N.34.d
  295. Marchal Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.34.a
  296.  Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.33.b
  297.  Military History Encyclopedia on the Web (HistoryofWar.org) 
  298.  John Jackson (1st Cameron Highlanders, 1st Bde, 1st Divn) vividly describes the Bazentin le Petit and High Wood area in his published diary [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,79}"]
  299.  Crescent Alley: Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: 33.d 
  300. 26th Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d
  301.  Eaucourt L’Abbaye:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c 
  302. Destremont Farm: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.a
  303.  The village of Le Sars straddles the Albert-Baupaume road: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.16.c 
  304. This journey is described in Norman Gladden’s book [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,105}"]
  305.  North & South Durham trenches lay to the south of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d & 21.c 
  306.  Rutherford Alley was a communication trench running north towards Le Sars:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.22.c 
  307.  Eaucourt d’Abbaye lies approximately three quarters of a mile south east of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c
  308.  D16 – Map Reference: M23c.2.4 and D8- Map Reference: M23.c.3.7. [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,42}"]
  309.  Pte William Wood 4/5150 (b. Kettering
  310.  21st, 22nd, 23rd & 24th London Regt (142nd Bde, 47th Divn) 
  311.  Pte Maynard Frank Nunn 4/5010 (e. Cambridge
  312.  10th & 11th NF & 12th DLI (68th Bde, 23rd Divn) 
  313.  Pte Richard Henry Jacobs  4/5102 (e. West London
  314. James Henry Newman 4/5257 (b. Norwich) (e. Norwich)
  315.  During the First World War, the YMCA supports the troops. YMCA huts provide soldiers with food and a place to rest on the frontline or at home in military camps and railway stations. The YMCA embarked on a massive education programme for soldiers, which eventually becomes the Army Education Corps. [zotpressInText item="{IS6FHCKS}"]
  316. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,125}"] 
  317. D2 (Female 539) [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,47}"]
  318.  Soldiers Died in the Great War (SDITGW) and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)
  319.  Sgt William Moffat MM (7/1878) is buried in Abbeville Communal Cemetery Extension (d.21 Sep 1916). William and Margaret Moffatt resided at 24, Back Clayton Street in Bedlington, Northumberland. William had served in the South African War 
  320. 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken
  321. The camp at the south-east corner of Mametz Wood
  322.  5th Cameronians (26th Bde, 9th Divn)
  323.  1st, 2nd 3rd and 4th South African Regts (South African Bde, 9th Divn) 
  324.  RFA positions – 18 pounders etc 
  325. John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) Into Battle - A Soldiers Diary of the Great War [zotpressInText item="{ZZCPTDHK,68}"]
  326. 27th Bde - 6th KOSB, 11th & 12th Royal Scots, 9th Cameronians ( 9th Divn)
  327. [zotpressInText item="{62F7X4R4,48}"]
  328. 26th Bde - 8th Black Watch, 7th Seaforth Highlanders, 5th Cameron Highlanders, 10th Argyle & Sutherland Highlanders (9th Divn)
  329. Winston Churchill (1871-1947) was no relation of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, but coincidently both had political careers, were noted amateur painters, attended service colleges and briefly served simultaneously as officers in their respective countries' armed forces
  330.  When the Barrage Lifts: A Topographical History and Commentary on the Battle of the Somme 1916. [zotpressInText item="{TNPW6P94,115}"]
  331.  Dixies were large oval shaped cooking pots
  332.  Tinned meat & vegetable (M&V) stew was provided in 20 to 24 oz tins. The quality varied considerably from brand to brand, however the Maconochie Brothers brand was considered one of the better ones 
  333.  Pte John Calvert Sowerby (4/2799) (b. Denton) (e. Haltwhistle). John is buried at St Sever Cemetery Extension and commemorated on the Haltwhistle Memorial 
  334. Pte Frederick William Brett (4/5194), (e. Norfolk Regt) was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then the 4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  335.  Likely to have been 8th Black Watch (26th Bde) 
  336. Pte William Lewis (4/3814) (e. Nottingham). Thiepval Memorial, Somme
  337.  Pte William George Little (4/2189) (b. Bingfield) (e. Hexham). 4th Reserve Bn on 1st Sep 16. Thiepval Memorial, Somme 
  338. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,140}"]
  339.  Red and green flares were usually fired from a Very pistol for signalling purposes and white flares to illuminate an area at night 
  340. An SOS Barrage
  341.  Pte Edgar Kaye (4/5068) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  342. Pte James Wray (4/5058) (b. Longwood, Yorks) (e. Huddersfield) was posted to the 4th from the 8th NF (8/29015). He is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  343. Pte Harold Wilby (4/5063) is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France
  344. Pte Edward Thomas Gillings (4/5123) (b. Gillings, Pembrokeshire) (e. Great Yarmouth) had previously served with the 5th NF (5/5804). He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  345.  Pte William James Goodrum (4/5066) (b. Great Yarmouth) (e. Newcastle) transferred to the 4th from the 8th NF (4/4468) 
  346. Pte Frederick Claxton (4/5212) (e. Norwich) was posted to the 4th NF from the East Yorks Regt (4/7921) and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  347. Pte John Elliott (4/3343)
  348.  Pte Enoch Shipley (4/5138) (e. Norfolk Regt (1591) Melton Constable, Norfolk) and was subsequently posted to the NF 
  349.  Pte William Surtees Leathard (4/4191) (b. Prudhoe) (e. Hexham) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  350. Pte William Lewis (4/3814), William George Little (4/2189) and George Edward Ward (  ) are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  351.  L/Cpl John Robertson (4/1369) (b. Newcastle) (e. Prudhoe) was wounded early 1915, reported to the 3/4th NF on 25 Jun 15 and drafted back to France 18 Sep 15. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  352. Allandale man L/Cpl Thomas Armstrong (4/1997) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  353.  Norman Gladden [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,138}"]
  354.  Wooden and metal sections or frames were often constructed behind the lines in RE workshops to enable the quick construction of dugouts in the trenches. Large packing crates were also used as shelters
  355.  Prudhoe man L/Cpl William Jackson (4/2058) was a recipient of the Military Medal and is buried in Dernancourt Communal Cemetery Extension 
  356.  Warlencourt Line: Presumed to mean the Gird Line 
  357. Haltwhistle man John Albert Nicholson (4/2693) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. John was first taken on 3/4th NF strength - 11th Jun 15 
  358.  Pte Fred Willis (4/5157) (e. Northampton) served with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt prior to the NF. He is buried in Caterpillar Valley Cemetery near Longueval
  359.  The 50th Division 1914 - 1919 [zotpressInText item="{4R6FADJ9,}"]
  360.  The French sugar beet industry was a direct outcome of Britain’s blockade of French Ports during the Napoleonic Wars, which prevented the import of Sugar Cane. Napoleon decreed that French farmers should grow sugar beet and within two years approximately 160,000 acres were in cultivation and some 330 small refineries were producing 3,350 tons of sugar. The Somme was a major producer supporting more than 120 sugar refineries located in the Department (Inventory of Sugar Refineries) 
  361. The German 5th Grenadier Guard Regiment was of Prussian origin and part of the 4th Guard Infantry Divn
  362.  Duckboards (wooden planking) were used as trench flooring or to make paths across muddy ground 
  363. Pte John Clarke (4/3299) (b. Wigton, Cumberland) (e. Newcastle). John is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  364.  Pte Daniel Walden (4/5141) (e. Northwood, Middlesex). Daniel was transferred to the NF from the Norfolk Regt 
  365. Pte Harold Hiscock (4/5397) (b. York) (e. Hexham). Harold is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  366.  Pte Wilfred Hardwick (4/3685) (b. Mansfield, Notts) (e. Mansfield). Wilfred is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France 
  367.  A ‘Chinese’ barrage was a bogus attack 
  368.  Edward Grey. Lawson 
  369. Fletcher Hugh Lionel Woods
  370.  Sgt James R Richardson (1430) from Rothbury 
  371.  A/Sgt J. Piercy (290418) (b. Berwick on Tweed)( e. Alnwick)
  372. Capt Roger Cranage
  373. 2nd Lt T. Bonner
  374. 2nd Lt William Henry Fisher was drafted to France on 20 July 1916 
  375. Capt John Wilfred Robinson, the brother of Frank Robinson (4th NF) and George Sydney Robinson (1st Buffs) originated from Hexham. (Grint, p. 160) He was wounded in April 1915, but after returning to service with the 3/4th NF was drafted back to the 1/4th on the 4th of Aug 1915. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France. George was to die on the 26th April 18 
  376. Major N. I. Wright [note] returned to the front line at 11pm to reorganise the men in preparation for a fresh attack. For this task they had a 4th NF Coy and the 7th NF on the left flank and a 4th NF Coy and around thirty men from 'A' Coy 7th NF .

    The 4th NF and three strong bombing parties attacked again at 12.30amh,

    Even though suffering from the agony of trench foot, Pte Norman Gladden (7th NF) was ordered up into the front line:

    'The low trench was crammed with men – troops from our D Company and from the 4th Battalion. The parapet was lined with soldiers, their fixed bayonets glinting in the dimly lit night. An attack was being staged. I was struck dumb with amazement. The men were already clambering out of the trench. Hardly had the first man mounted the parapet when the enemy, as though sensing something unusual, sent up a myriad of lights which, bursting overhead, converted night into day. The steel-helmeted figures of the front wave stood out in sharp relief against the unearthly blue illumination. While we hesitated, bewildered by the suddenness of this manoeuvre, an officer pushed his way along the trench threatening with drawn revolver anyone who held back from going over. He pointed at me. I was flabbergasted. There must be some mistake: we had been told nothing. My astonished terror gave place to anger at the injustice of the whole business. At that moment I would sooner have killed the officer than any German' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,162}"].

    Gladden clambered out of the trench with the support wave of men, but was soon forced to seek the shelter of a large depression in the ground to evade the machine gun fire. The ground was constantly illuminated by the rise and fall of an assortment of red, green and yellow signal flares against a backdrop of artillery gun flashes:

    'The machine guns traversed back and forth, shearing the ground around us like mighty scythes. Rifles cracked incessantly and bullets spanged into the mud near our heads. In front we could hear the bursting of hand grenades hurled by the enemy, as much in fright as at specific targets, since there is little evidence that our front wave had got so far. Heavier shells crashed around us, but mainly behind since they were directed against the trench we had left. We were between two fires' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,163}"].

    The shell fire died down once the enemy were convinced that the attack had failed, enabling Gladden and his fellow survivors to crawl back towards Snag Trench in a desperate attempt to reach cover before daylight exposed their predicament. Col. Gibson and Maj. Wright had long since recognised the attack had failed and had set the occupants of Snag Trench to work preparing it for defence before returning to Bn HQ at 2am .

    The fusiliers endured heavy shelling all day until they were finally relieved by the 4th East Yorkshires at 2.45am on the 16th and were able to move back to the Flers Line. The 7th NF stayed in the front line and Fisher found himself in command of the remnants of the Bn:

    'We now had a trench strength of one officer and seventy-six men including the carrying party which came up during the night. The day passed quietly, and in the afternoon we were ordered to withdraw to the Abbaye supports. Here we found a ghastly sight. The trench was almost obliterated by shell-fire. The half of "C" Company which had remained behind had apparently scattered in depth in an attempt to avoid the well marked position of the trench but to little purpose. We had almost reached the limits of human endurance and in one case, which I sent to the dressing station, the mental strain had proved too much. During the evening the battalion was relieved, bringing to an end this fatal tour. Never in my comparatively long service with the battalion did we meet with such hardship and horrors as on this occasion, or, I believe, were so few left to tell the tale' [zotpressInText item="{S4S4TVNA}"].

    Norman Gladden’s group was relieved by the 4th East Yorks during the evening and also headed for the relative safety of the Flers Switch line:

    'We came at last to the ridge where we were to leave Pioneer Alley for the open. In front of one of the sandbagged dug-outs each man was served with hot coffee, a draught of thick black liquid that brought anew warmth into my body and made me offer thanks to heaven.

    The line moved on, a straggling weary snake stretching into the gloom, our figures throwing exaggerated shadows from the flares at dug-out openings. Two lone purposeful shells screamed over from the enemy, striking the ground not far from the spot where coffee was being served. After escaping so much, seven more of our company were added to the roll of death and four others were carried away on stretchers; the unkindest blow at the very edge of safety' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,166}"].

    Twenty-four hours of fighting claimed the lives of Capt. John Robinson and 2nd Lt Larken [note] 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken was only drafted to the Bn on the 17th of October 

  377. 2nd Lt Alan James Derrick (d. 15 Nov 1916) 7th NF Thiepval Memorial
  378.  Pte William James Newman (4/9048) (b. Wandsworth, Surrey) was transferred from the Norfolk Regt. Commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  379.  Pte Arthur Ernest Pyatt (4/5107), aged 25, and his brother Henry (4/5106), aged 34, enlisted in the Norfolk Regt at Hackney Baths. Thiepval Memorial 
  380.  Pte Joseph Davies (4/5304) was transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Joseph is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  381.  Pte Ernest Leopold Douglas (4/5133) served previously with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt, Norfolk Regt and 5th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  382. Pte Alfred George Woodward (4/5156) was transferred from the 1/4th East Yorks Regt. Alfred is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France
  383.  Pte Richard Dover (4/5379) (b. Brandon, Co Durham) served previously with the DLI. Richard is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  384. Pte Frank Bradbury (4/5301) (b. Saddleworth, Yorkshire) and transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Frank is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  385. Pte Bertie William Adcock (4/9007) served previously with the Norfolk Regt. Bertie is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.
  386. Pte John Glass (4/6656) (Scotswood, Newcastle) was transferred from the 1/6th NF. John is buried at Warlencourt British Cemetery
  387.  Pte Herbert Albert Boast (4/5206) (b.Norwich) and enlisted in the Norfolk Regt. He was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then 1/4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  388. Sgt William Anthony Charlton (4/35) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham). William is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  389.  The 10th (Service) Bn Gloucester Regiment were part of the 1st Bde, 1st Divn 
  390.  The Bombing School was most likely to have been near the village of Montigny-sur-l'Hallue, approximately nine miles west of Albert
  391. Lt Col Scott Jackson
  392. The Royal Engineers raised a total of eleven Labour Bns. They consisted of navvies, tradesmen and semi-skilled men and were used in construction of rear defence lines and similar works
  393. Bns were equipped with handcarts for the Lewis guns. Pack ponies -
  394.  The 4th Army Infantry School of Instruction was in Flixecourt - 
  395.  2nd Lt Bernard Roger Philip Hawken 
  396. Pierrots were at the height of popularity in seaside resorts at the end of the 19th Century, providing family orientated shows with music, song, dance, acrobatics and comedy sketches  
  397. 2nd Lt Coatsworth
  398. The 2nd Welsh Regiment was part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn. The Bn had been on the Western Front since August 1914
  399. 1st and 3rd Bdes (1st Divn)
  400.  The 1st South Wales Borderers were part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn and had been on the Western Front since August 1914 
  401. Captain, later Lt Col. Hugh Liddell, DSO, MC (1/7th NF)
  402. Listed in the London Gazette
  403.  London Gazette (1917) Capt. C. G. Arkwright M.C. 4th NF, to be acting Major whilst serving on HQ of a Bn from 20 Oct 18 to 30 Mar 19. Date: 2 Dec 19 Issue number: 31673 (Gazette, London, p. 15037). Northumberland Fusiliers- Lt. C. G. Arkwright M.C, to be acting Major whilst employed as Major on HQ. 11 Aug 17. Lt. D. T. Turner to be acting Capt whilst commanding a Coy. 1917 published on the 21 Sep 17. Page 17 of 20
  404.  2nd Lt William Maxson Collingwood Wilson 
  405. M.24.b.6.6 - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24
  406.  Fishtail bombs were a small trench mortar bomb used by the German Army 
  407. Pte Henry Spencer Beadle (4/5354) (b.e. Hessle, Yorks). Henry served previously with the 5th and 6th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  408.  Bayonet Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.18.d
  409.  Cobham Trench ran between the communication trenches Goose Alley and Turk Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24.c & N.13.c 
  410. The Minenwerfer was a German trench mortar
  411.  Cobham Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Reference M.24.c. The junction of Yarra Reserve with Yarra Avenue – Reference: M.24.d
  412. The 1st Northumbrian Field Coy Royal Engineers was renumbered the 446th Coy
  413. Clark’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57c SW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  414. Flers Reserve Trench -   Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0- 
  415. The 179th Tunnelling Coy was formed in the 3rd Army area in October 1915 
  416.  Factory Corner was the crossroads north of Flers taken by the New Zealand Divn on 25th Sep 1916: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: N.19.c.9.1
  417. Flers Reserve trench - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0
  418.  BP Dump
  419. Bazentin Circus - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.8.d 8.0
  420. High Wood Siding     - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  421. Clarke’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  422. Seven Elms dump - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.28.d
  423. ‘H’ Rations
  424. Private 12768 - Memoir of a Tommy - John Jackson [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,88}"]
  425. BP Dump – Langly Circus
  426. Canvas Camp -
  427.  Loupart Wood and Grevillers are approximately one mile north of the Butte De Warlencourt 
  428. A black frost was a dry freeze which kills and thus blackens vegetation because there is no protective layer of hoar frost
  429. The Regimental Aid Post (RAP) provided the first line of medical treatment for a wounded soldier.
  430. Coy HQ comprised the CO (Maj), 2 i/c (Capt), Coy Sergeant Major (CSM), Coy Quartermaster Sergeant (CQMS), two batmen and three drivers
  431.  Pte Arthur William Hannan (4/5425) ( b. Birstwith, Yorks). He was transferred to the 4th NF the 13th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  432.  Roye:  Lat/Long: 049 41’ 55 N  : 002 47’ 57 E
  433. Command Post PC Hedevaux: Belloy Map: Reference: N.27.c.5.4
  434. PC Buelow: Belloy Map: 62c and 62d - Ref: N.25.d.6.4
  435.  Boyau Bouchet trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.b
  436.  Argonne Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.27.d 
  437. French bomb store – Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.21.c.80
  438. Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.b
  439.  Bouchot: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a
  440.  Bois Damloup: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a.5.7
  441. Support trenches at the southern end of the sector:  Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.d
  442. Annamites Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref:  N.34.d
  443. Marchal Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.34.a
  444.  Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.33.b
  445.  Military History Encyclopedia on the Web (HistoryofWar.org) 
  446.  John Jackson (1st Cameron Highlanders, 1st Bde, 1st Divn) vividly describes the Bazentin le Petit and High Wood area in his published diary [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,79}"]
  447.  Crescent Alley: Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: 33.d 
  448. 26th Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d
  449.  Eaucourt L’Abbaye:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c 
  450. Destremont Farm: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.a
  451.  The village of Le Sars straddles the Albert-Baupaume road: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.16.c 
  452. This journey is described in Norman Gladden’s book [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,105}"]
  453.  North & South Durham trenches lay to the south of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d & 21.c 
  454.  Rutherford Alley was a communication trench running north towards Le Sars:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.22.c 
  455.  Eaucourt d’Abbaye lies approximately three quarters of a mile south east of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c
  456.  D16 – Map Reference: M23c.2.4 and D8- Map Reference: M23.c.3.7. [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,42}"]
  457.  Pte William Wood 4/5150 (b. Kettering
  458.  21st, 22nd, 23rd & 24th London Regt (142nd Bde, 47th Divn) 
  459.  Pte Maynard Frank Nunn 4/5010 (e. Cambridge
  460.  10th & 11th NF & 12th DLI (68th Bde, 23rd Divn) 
  461.  Pte Richard Henry Jacobs  4/5102 (e. West London
  462. James Henry Newman 4/5257 (b. Norwich) (e. Norwich)
  463.  During the First World War, the YMCA supports the troops. YMCA huts provide soldiers with food and a place to rest on the frontline or at home in military camps and railway stations. The YMCA embarked on a massive education programme for soldiers, which eventually becomes the Army Education Corps. [zotpressInText item="{IS6FHCKS}"]
  464. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,125}"] 
  465. D2 (Female 539) [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,47}"]
  466.  Soldiers Died in the Great War (SDITGW) and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)
  467.  Sgt William Moffat MM (7/1878) is buried in Abbeville Communal Cemetery Extension (d.21 Sep 1916). William and Margaret Moffatt resided at 24, Back Clayton Street in Bedlington, Northumberland. William had served in the South African War 
  468. 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken
  469. The camp at the south-east corner of Mametz Wood
  470.  5th Cameronians (26th Bde, 9th Divn)
  471.  1st, 2nd 3rd and 4th South African Regts (South African Bde, 9th Divn) 
  472.  RFA positions – 18 pounders etc 
  473. John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) Into Battle - A Soldiers Diary of the Great War [zotpressInText item="{ZZCPTDHK,68}"]
  474. 27th Bde - 6th KOSB, 11th & 12th Royal Scots, 9th Cameronians ( 9th Divn)
  475. [zotpressInText item="{62F7X4R4,48}"]
  476. 26th Bde - 8th Black Watch, 7th Seaforth Highlanders, 5th Cameron Highlanders, 10th Argyle & Sutherland Highlanders (9th Divn)
  477. Winston Churchill (1871-1947) was no relation of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, but coincidently both had political careers, were noted amateur painters, attended service colleges and briefly served simultaneously as officers in their respective countries' armed forces
  478.  When the Barrage Lifts: A Topographical History and Commentary on the Battle of the Somme 1916. [zotpressInText item="{TNPW6P94,115}"]
  479.  Dixies were large oval shaped cooking pots
  480.  Tinned meat & vegetable (M&V) stew was provided in 20 to 24 oz tins. The quality varied considerably from brand to brand, however the Maconochie Brothers brand was considered one of the better ones 
  481.  Pte John Calvert Sowerby (4/2799) (b. Denton) (e. Haltwhistle). John is buried at St Sever Cemetery Extension and commemorated on the Haltwhistle Memorial 
  482. Pte Frederick William Brett (4/5194), (e. Norfolk Regt) was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then the 4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  483.  Likely to have been 8th Black Watch (26th Bde) 
  484. Pte William Lewis (4/3814) (e. Nottingham). Thiepval Memorial, Somme
  485.  Pte William George Little (4/2189) (b. Bingfield) (e. Hexham). 4th Reserve Bn on 1st Sep 16. Thiepval Memorial, Somme 
  486. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,140}"]
  487.  Red and green flares were usually fired from a Very pistol for signalling purposes and white flares to illuminate an area at night 
  488. An SOS Barrage
  489.  Pte Edgar Kaye (4/5068) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  490. Pte James Wray (4/5058) (b. Longwood, Yorks) (e. Huddersfield) was posted to the 4th from the 8th NF (8/29015). He is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  491. Pte Harold Wilby (4/5063) is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France
  492. Pte Edward Thomas Gillings (4/5123) (b. Gillings, Pembrokeshire) (e. Great Yarmouth) had previously served with the 5th NF (5/5804). He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  493.  Pte William James Goodrum (4/5066) (b. Great Yarmouth) (e. Newcastle) transferred to the 4th from the 8th NF (4/4468) 
  494. Pte Frederick Claxton (4/5212) (e. Norwich) was posted to the 4th NF from the East Yorks Regt (4/7921) and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  495. Pte John Elliott (4/3343)
  496.  Pte Enoch Shipley (4/5138) (e. Norfolk Regt (1591) Melton Constable, Norfolk) and was subsequently posted to the NF 
  497.  Pte William Surtees Leathard (4/4191) (b. Prudhoe) (e. Hexham) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  498. Pte William Lewis (4/3814), William George Little (4/2189) and George Edward Ward (  ) are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  499.  L/Cpl John Robertson (4/1369) (b. Newcastle) (e. Prudhoe) was wounded early 1915, reported to the 3/4th NF on 25 Jun 15 and drafted back to France 18 Sep 15. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  500. Allandale man L/Cpl Thomas Armstrong (4/1997) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  501.  Norman Gladden [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,138}"]
  502.  Wooden and metal sections or frames were often constructed behind the lines in RE workshops to enable the quick construction of dugouts in the trenches. Large packing crates were also used as shelters
  503.  Prudhoe man L/Cpl William Jackson (4/2058) was a recipient of the Military Medal and is buried in Dernancourt Communal Cemetery Extension 
  504.  Warlencourt Line: Presumed to mean the Gird Line 
  505. Haltwhistle man John Albert Nicholson (4/2693) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. John was first taken on 3/4th NF strength - 11th Jun 15 
  506.  Pte Fred Willis (4/5157) (e. Northampton) served with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt prior to the NF. He is buried in Caterpillar Valley Cemetery near Longueval
  507.  The 50th Division 1914 - 1919 [zotpressInText item="{4R6FADJ9,}"]
  508.  The French sugar beet industry was a direct outcome of Britain’s blockade of French Ports during the Napoleonic Wars, which prevented the import of Sugar Cane. Napoleon decreed that French farmers should grow sugar beet and within two years approximately 160,000 acres were in cultivation and some 330 small refineries were producing 3,350 tons of sugar. The Somme was a major producer supporting more than 120 sugar refineries located in the Department (Inventory of Sugar Refineries) 
  509. The German 5th Grenadier Guard Regiment was of Prussian origin and part of the 4th Guard Infantry Divn
  510.  Duckboards (wooden planking) were used as trench flooring or to make paths across muddy ground 
  511. Pte John Clarke (4/3299) (b. Wigton, Cumberland) (e. Newcastle). John is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  512.  Pte Daniel Walden (4/5141) (e. Northwood, Middlesex). Daniel was transferred to the NF from the Norfolk Regt 
  513. Pte Harold Hiscock (4/5397) (b. York) (e. Hexham). Harold is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  514.  Pte Wilfred Hardwick (4/3685) (b. Mansfield, Notts) (e. Mansfield). Wilfred is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France 
  515.  A ‘Chinese’ barrage was a bogus attack 
  516.  Edward Grey. Lawson 
  517. Fletcher Hugh Lionel Woods
  518.  Sgt James R Richardson (1430) from Rothbury 
  519.  A/Sgt J. Piercy (290418) (b. Berwick on Tweed)( e. Alnwick)
  520. Capt Roger Cranage
  521. 2nd Lt T. Bonner
  522. 2nd Lt William Henry Fisher was drafted to France on 20 July 1916 
  523. Capt John Wilfred Robinson, the brother of Frank Robinson (4th NF) and George Sydney Robinson (1st Buffs) originated from Hexham. (Grint, p. 160) He was wounded in April 1915, but after returning to service with the 3/4th NF was drafted back to the 1/4th on the 4th of Aug 1915. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France. George was to die on the 26th April 18 
  524. Major N. I. Wright [note] returned to the front line at 11pm to reorganise the men in preparation for a fresh attack. For this task they had a 4th NF Coy and the 7th NF on the left flank and a 4th NF Coy and around thirty men from 'A' Coy 7th NF .

    The 4th NF and three strong bombing parties attacked again at 12.30amh,

    Even though suffering from the agony of trench foot, Pte Norman Gladden (7th NF) was ordered up into the front line:

    'The low trench was crammed with men – troops from our D Company and from the 4th Battalion. The parapet was lined with soldiers, their fixed bayonets glinting in the dimly lit night. An attack was being staged. I was struck dumb with amazement. The men were already clambering out of the trench. Hardly had the first man mounted the parapet when the enemy, as though sensing something unusual, sent up a myriad of lights which, bursting overhead, converted night into day. The steel-helmeted figures of the front wave stood out in sharp relief against the unearthly blue illumination. While we hesitated, bewildered by the suddenness of this manoeuvre, an officer pushed his way along the trench threatening with drawn revolver anyone who held back from going over. He pointed at me. I was flabbergasted. There must be some mistake: we had been told nothing. My astonished terror gave place to anger at the injustice of the whole business. At that moment I would sooner have killed the officer than any German' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,162}"].

    Gladden clambered out of the trench with the support wave of men, but was soon forced to seek the shelter of a large depression in the ground to evade the machine gun fire. The ground was constantly illuminated by the rise and fall of an assortment of red, green and yellow signal flares against a backdrop of artillery gun flashes:

    'The machine guns traversed back and forth, shearing the ground around us like mighty scythes. Rifles cracked incessantly and bullets spanged into the mud near our heads. In front we could hear the bursting of hand grenades hurled by the enemy, as much in fright as at specific targets, since there is little evidence that our front wave had got so far. Heavier shells crashed around us, but mainly behind since they were directed against the trench we had left. We were between two fires' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,163}"].

    The shell fire died down once the enemy were convinced that the attack had failed, enabling Gladden and his fellow survivors to crawl back towards Snag Trench in a desperate attempt to reach cover before daylight exposed their predicament. Col. Gibson and Maj. Wright had long since recognised the attack had failed and had set the occupants of Snag Trench to work preparing it for defence before returning to Bn HQ at 2am .

    The fusiliers endured heavy shelling all day until they were finally relieved by the 4th East Yorkshires at 2.45am on the 16th and were able to move back to the Flers Line. The 7th NF stayed in the front line and Fisher found himself in command of the remnants of the Bn:

    'We now had a trench strength of one officer and seventy-six men including the carrying party which came up during the night. The day passed quietly, and in the afternoon we were ordered to withdraw to the Abbaye supports. Here we found a ghastly sight. The trench was almost obliterated by shell-fire. The half of "C" Company which had remained behind had apparently scattered in depth in an attempt to avoid the well marked position of the trench but to little purpose. We had almost reached the limits of human endurance and in one case, which I sent to the dressing station, the mental strain had proved too much. During the evening the battalion was relieved, bringing to an end this fatal tour. Never in my comparatively long service with the battalion did we meet with such hardship and horrors as on this occasion, or, I believe, were so few left to tell the tale' [zotpressInText item="{S4S4TVNA}"].

    Norman Gladden’s group was relieved by the 4th East Yorks during the evening and also headed for the relative safety of the Flers Switch line:

    'We came at last to the ridge where we were to leave Pioneer Alley for the open. In front of one of the sandbagged dug-outs each man was served with hot coffee, a draught of thick black liquid that brought anew warmth into my body and made me offer thanks to heaven.

    The line moved on, a straggling weary snake stretching into the gloom, our figures throwing exaggerated shadows from the flares at dug-out openings. Two lone purposeful shells screamed over from the enemy, striking the ground not far from the spot where coffee was being served. After escaping so much, seven more of our company were added to the roll of death and four others were carried away on stretchers; the unkindest blow at the very edge of safety' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,166}"].

    Twenty-four hours of fighting claimed the lives of Capt. John Robinson and 2nd Lt Larken [note] 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken was only drafted to the Bn on the 17th of October 

  525. 2nd Lt Alan James Derrick (d. 15 Nov 1916) 7th NF Thiepval Memorial
  526.  Pte William James Newman (4/9048) (b. Wandsworth, Surrey) was transferred from the Norfolk Regt. Commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  527.  Pte Arthur Ernest Pyatt (4/5107), aged 25, and his brother Henry (4/5106), aged 34, enlisted in the Norfolk Regt at Hackney Baths. Thiepval Memorial 
  528.  Pte Joseph Davies (4/5304) was transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Joseph is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  529.  Pte Ernest Leopold Douglas (4/5133) served previously with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt, Norfolk Regt and 5th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  530. Pte Alfred George Woodward (4/5156) was transferred from the 1/4th East Yorks Regt. Alfred is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France
  531.  Pte Richard Dover (4/5379) (b. Brandon, Co Durham) served previously with the DLI. Richard is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  532. Pte Frank Bradbury (4/5301) (b. Saddleworth, Yorkshire) and transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Frank is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  533. Pte Bertie William Adcock (4/9007) served previously with the Norfolk Regt. Bertie is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.
  534. Pte John Glass (4/6656) (Scotswood, Newcastle) was transferred from the 1/6th NF. John is buried at Warlencourt British Cemetery
  535.  Pte Herbert Albert Boast (4/5206) (b.Norwich) and enlisted in the Norfolk Regt. He was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then 1/4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  536. Sgt William Anthony Charlton (4/35) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham). William is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  537.  The 10th (Service) Bn Gloucester Regiment were part of the 1st Bde, 1st Divn 
  538.  The Bombing School was most likely to have been near the village of Montigny-sur-l'Hallue, approximately nine miles west of Albert
  539. Lt Col Scott Jackson
  540. The Royal Engineers raised a total of eleven Labour Bns. They consisted of navvies, tradesmen and semi-skilled men and were used in construction of rear defence lines and similar works
  541. Bns were equipped with handcarts for the Lewis guns. Pack ponies -
  542.  The 4th Army Infantry School of Instruction was in Flixecourt - 
  543.  2nd Lt Bernard Roger Philip Hawken 
  544. Pierrots were at the height of popularity in seaside resorts at the end of the 19th Century, providing family orientated shows with music, song, dance, acrobatics and comedy sketches  
  545. 2nd Lt Coatsworth
  546. The 2nd Welsh Regiment was part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn. The Bn had been on the Western Front since August 1914
  547. 1st and 3rd Bdes (1st Divn)
  548.  The 1st South Wales Borderers were part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn and had been on the Western Front since August 1914 
  549. Captain, later Lt Col. Hugh Liddell, DSO, MC (1/7th NF)
  550. Listed in the London Gazette
  551.  London Gazette (1917) Capt. C. G. Arkwright M.C. 4th NF, to be acting Major whilst serving on HQ of a Bn from 20 Oct 18 to 30 Mar 19. Date: 2 Dec 19 Issue number: 31673 (Gazette, London, p. 15037). Northumberland Fusiliers- Lt. C. G. Arkwright M.C, to be acting Major whilst employed as Major on HQ. 11 Aug 17. Lt. D. T. Turner to be acting Capt whilst commanding a Coy. 1917 published on the 21 Sep 17. Page 17 of 20
  552.  2nd Lt William Maxson Collingwood Wilson 
  553. M.24.b.6.6 - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24
  554.  Fishtail bombs were a small trench mortar bomb used by the German Army 
  555. Pte Henry Spencer Beadle (4/5354) (b.e. Hessle, Yorks). Henry served previously with the 5th and 6th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  556.  Bayonet Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.18.d
  557.  Cobham Trench ran between the communication trenches Goose Alley and Turk Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24.c & N.13.c 
  558. The Minenwerfer was a German trench mortar
  559.  Cobham Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Reference M.24.c. The junction of Yarra Reserve with Yarra Avenue – Reference: M.24.d
  560. The 1st Northumbrian Field Coy Royal Engineers was renumbered the 446th Coy
  561. Clark’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57c SW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  562. Flers Reserve Trench -   Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0- 
  563. The 179th Tunnelling Coy was formed in the 3rd Army area in October 1915 
  564.  Factory Corner was the crossroads north of Flers taken by the New Zealand Divn on 25th Sep 1916: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: N.19.c.9.1
  565. Flers Reserve trench - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0
  566.  BP Dump
  567. Bazentin Circus - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.8.d 8.0
  568. High Wood Siding     - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  569. Clarke’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  570. Seven Elms dump - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.28.d
  571. ‘H’ Rations
  572. Private 12768 - Memoir of a Tommy - John Jackson [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,88}"]
  573. BP Dump – Langly Circus
  574. Canvas Camp -
  575.  Loupart Wood and Grevillers are approximately one mile north of the Butte De Warlencourt 
  576. A black frost was a dry freeze which kills and thus blackens vegetation because there is no protective layer of hoar frost
  577. The Regimental Aid Post (RAP) provided the first line of medical treatment for a wounded soldier.
  578. Coy HQ comprised the CO (Maj), 2 i/c (Capt), Coy Sergeant Major (CSM), Coy Quartermaster Sergeant (CQMS), two batmen and three drivers
  579.  Pte Arthur William Hannan (4/5425) ( b. Birstwith, Yorks). He was transferred to the 4th NF the 13th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  580.  Roye:  Lat/Long: 049 41’ 55 N  : 002 47’ 57 E
  581. Command Post PC Hedevaux: Belloy Map: Reference: N.27.c.5.4
  582. PC Buelow: Belloy Map: 62c and 62d - Ref: N.25.d.6.4
  583.  Boyau Bouchet trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.b
  584.  Argonne Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.27.d 
  585. French bomb store – Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.21.c.80
  586. Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.b
  587.  Bouchot: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a
  588.  Bois Damloup: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a.5.7
  589. Support trenches at the southern end of the sector:  Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.d
  590. Annamites Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref:  N.34.d
  591. Marchal Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.34.a
  592.  Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.33.b
  593.  Military History Encyclopedia on the Web (HistoryofWar.org) 
  594.  John Jackson (1st Cameron Highlanders, 1st Bde, 1st Divn) vividly describes the Bazentin le Petit and High Wood area in his published diary [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,79}"]
  595.  Crescent Alley: Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: 33.d 
  596. 26th Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d
  597.  Eaucourt L’Abbaye:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c 
  598. Destremont Farm: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.a
  599.  The village of Le Sars straddles the Albert-Baupaume road: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.16.c 
  600. This journey is described in Norman Gladden’s book [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,105}"]
  601.  North & South Durham trenches lay to the south of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d & 21.c 
  602.  Rutherford Alley was a communication trench running north towards Le Sars:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.22.c 
  603.  Eaucourt d’Abbaye lies approximately three quarters of a mile south east of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c
  604.  D16 – Map Reference: M23c.2.4 and D8- Map Reference: M23.c.3.7. [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,42}"]
  605.  Pte William Wood 4/5150 (b. Kettering
  606.  21st, 22nd, 23rd & 24th London Regt (142nd Bde, 47th Divn) 
  607.  Pte Maynard Frank Nunn 4/5010 (e. Cambridge
  608.  10th & 11th NF & 12th DLI (68th Bde, 23rd Divn) 
  609.  Pte Richard Henry Jacobs  4/5102 (e. West London
  610. James Henry Newman 4/5257 (b. Norwich) (e. Norwich)
  611.  During the First World War, the YMCA supports the troops. YMCA huts provide soldiers with food and a place to rest on the frontline or at home in military camps and railway stations. The YMCA embarked on a massive education programme for soldiers, which eventually becomes the Army Education Corps. [zotpressInText item="{IS6FHCKS}"]
  612. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,125}"] 
  613. D2 (Female 539) [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,47}"]
  614.  Soldiers Died in the Great War (SDITGW) and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)
  615.  Sgt William Moffat MM (7/1878) is buried in Abbeville Communal Cemetery Extension (d.21 Sep 1916). William and Margaret Moffatt resided at 24, Back Clayton Street in Bedlington, Northumberland. William had served in the South African War 
  616. 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken
  617. The camp at the south-east corner of Mametz Wood
  618.  5th Cameronians (26th Bde, 9th Divn)
  619.  1st, 2nd 3rd and 4th South African Regts (South African Bde, 9th Divn) 
  620.  RFA positions – 18 pounders etc 
  621. John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) Into Battle - A Soldiers Diary of the Great War [zotpressInText item="{ZZCPTDHK,68}"]
  622. 27th Bde - 6th KOSB, 11th & 12th Royal Scots, 9th Cameronians ( 9th Divn)
  623. [zotpressInText item="{62F7X4R4,48}"]
  624. 26th Bde - 8th Black Watch, 7th Seaforth Highlanders, 5th Cameron Highlanders, 10th Argyle & Sutherland Highlanders (9th Divn)
  625. Winston Churchill (1871-1947) was no relation of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, but coincidently both had political careers, were noted amateur painters, attended service colleges and briefly served simultaneously as officers in their respective countries' armed forces
  626.  When the Barrage Lifts: A Topographical History and Commentary on the Battle of the Somme 1916. [zotpressInText item="{TNPW6P94,115}"]
  627.  Dixies were large oval shaped cooking pots
  628.  Tinned meat & vegetable (M&V) stew was provided in 20 to 24 oz tins. The quality varied considerably from brand to brand, however the Maconochie Brothers brand was considered one of the better ones 
  629.  Pte John Calvert Sowerby (4/2799) (b. Denton) (e. Haltwhistle). John is buried at St Sever Cemetery Extension and commemorated on the Haltwhistle Memorial 
  630. Pte Frederick William Brett (4/5194), (e. Norfolk Regt) was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then the 4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  631.  Likely to have been 8th Black Watch (26th Bde) 
  632. Pte William Lewis (4/3814) (e. Nottingham). Thiepval Memorial, Somme
  633.  Pte William George Little (4/2189) (b. Bingfield) (e. Hexham). 4th Reserve Bn on 1st Sep 16. Thiepval Memorial, Somme 
  634. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,140}"]
  635.  Red and green flares were usually fired from a Very pistol for signalling purposes and white flares to illuminate an area at night 
  636. An SOS Barrage
  637.  Pte Edgar Kaye (4/5068) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  638. Pte James Wray (4/5058) (b. Longwood, Yorks) (e. Huddersfield) was posted to the 4th from the 8th NF (8/29015). He is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  639. Pte Harold Wilby (4/5063) is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France
  640. Pte Edward Thomas Gillings (4/5123) (b. Gillings, Pembrokeshire) (e. Great Yarmouth) had previously served with the 5th NF (5/5804). He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  641.  Pte William James Goodrum (4/5066) (b. Great Yarmouth) (e. Newcastle) transferred to the 4th from the 8th NF (4/4468) 
  642. Pte Frederick Claxton (4/5212) (e. Norwich) was posted to the 4th NF from the East Yorks Regt (4/7921) and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  643. Pte John Elliott (4/3343)
  644.  Pte Enoch Shipley (4/5138) (e. Norfolk Regt (1591) Melton Constable, Norfolk) and was subsequently posted to the NF 
  645.  Pte William Surtees Leathard (4/4191) (b. Prudhoe) (e. Hexham) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  646. Pte William Lewis (4/3814), William George Little (4/2189) and George Edward Ward (  ) are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  647.  L/Cpl John Robertson (4/1369) (b. Newcastle) (e. Prudhoe) was wounded early 1915, reported to the 3/4th NF on 25 Jun 15 and drafted back to France 18 Sep 15. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  648. Allandale man L/Cpl Thomas Armstrong (4/1997) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  649.  Norman Gladden [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,138}"]
  650.  Wooden and metal sections or frames were often constructed behind the lines in RE workshops to enable the quick construction of dugouts in the trenches. Large packing crates were also used as shelters
  651.  Prudhoe man L/Cpl William Jackson (4/2058) was a recipient of the Military Medal and is buried in Dernancourt Communal Cemetery Extension 
  652.  Warlencourt Line: Presumed to mean the Gird Line 
  653. Haltwhistle man John Albert Nicholson (4/2693) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. John was first taken on 3/4th NF strength - 11th Jun 15 
  654.  Pte Fred Willis (4/5157) (e. Northampton) served with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt prior to the NF. He is buried in Caterpillar Valley Cemetery near Longueval
  655.  The 50th Division 1914 - 1919 [zotpressInText item="{4R6FADJ9,}"]
  656.  The French sugar beet industry was a direct outcome of Britain’s blockade of French Ports during the Napoleonic Wars, which prevented the import of Sugar Cane. Napoleon decreed that French farmers should grow sugar beet and within two years approximately 160,000 acres were in cultivation and some 330 small refineries were producing 3,350 tons of sugar. The Somme was a major producer supporting more than 120 sugar refineries located in the Department (Inventory of Sugar Refineries) 
  657. The German 5th Grenadier Guard Regiment was of Prussian origin and part of the 4th Guard Infantry Divn
  658.  Duckboards (wooden planking) were used as trench flooring or to make paths across muddy ground 
  659. Pte John Clarke (4/3299) (b. Wigton, Cumberland) (e. Newcastle). John is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  660.  Pte Daniel Walden (4/5141) (e. Northwood, Middlesex). Daniel was transferred to the NF from the Norfolk Regt 
  661. Pte Harold Hiscock (4/5397) (b. York) (e. Hexham). Harold is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  662.  Pte Wilfred Hardwick (4/3685) (b. Mansfield, Notts) (e. Mansfield). Wilfred is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France 
  663.  A ‘Chinese’ barrage was a bogus attack 
  664.  Edward Grey. Lawson 
  665. Fletcher Hugh Lionel Woods
  666.  Sgt James R Richardson (1430) from Rothbury 
  667.  A/Sgt J. Piercy (290418) (b. Berwick on Tweed)( e. Alnwick)
  668. Capt Roger Cranage
  669. 2nd Lt T. Bonner
  670. 2nd Lt William Henry Fisher was drafted to France on 20 July 1916 
  671. Capt John Wilfred Robinson, the brother of Frank Robinson (4th NF) and George Sydney Robinson (1st Buffs) originated from Hexham. (Grint, p. 160) He was wounded in April 1915, but after returning to service with the 3/4th NF was drafted back to the 1/4th on the 4th of Aug 1915. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France. George was to die on the 26th April 18 
  672. Major N. I. Wright [note] returned to the front line at 11pm to reorganise the men in preparation for a fresh attack. For this task they had a 4th NF Coy and the 7th NF on the left flank and a 4th NF Coy and around thirty men from 'A' Coy 7th NF .

    The 4th NF and three strong bombing parties attacked again at 12.30amh,

    Even though suffering from the agony of trench foot, Pte Norman Gladden (7th NF) was ordered up into the front line:

    'The low trench was crammed with men – troops from our D Company and from the 4th Battalion. The parapet was lined with soldiers, their fixed bayonets glinting in the dimly lit night. An attack was being staged. I was struck dumb with amazement. The men were already clambering out of the trench. Hardly had the first man mounted the parapet when the enemy, as though sensing something unusual, sent up a myriad of lights which, bursting overhead, converted night into day. The steel-helmeted figures of the front wave stood out in sharp relief against the unearthly blue illumination. While we hesitated, bewildered by the suddenness of this manoeuvre, an officer pushed his way along the trench threatening with drawn revolver anyone who held back from going over. He pointed at me. I was flabbergasted. There must be some mistake: we had been told nothing. My astonished terror gave place to anger at the injustice of the whole business. At that moment I would sooner have killed the officer than any German' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,162}"].

    Gladden clambered out of the trench with the support wave of men, but was soon forced to seek the shelter of a large depression in the ground to evade the machine gun fire. The ground was constantly illuminated by the rise and fall of an assortment of red, green and yellow signal flares against a backdrop of artillery gun flashes:

    'The machine guns traversed back and forth, shearing the ground around us like mighty scythes. Rifles cracked incessantly and bullets spanged into the mud near our heads. In front we could hear the bursting of hand grenades hurled by the enemy, as much in fright as at specific targets, since there is little evidence that our front wave had got so far. Heavier shells crashed around us, but mainly behind since they were directed against the trench we had left. We were between two fires' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,163}"].

    The shell fire died down once the enemy were convinced that the attack had failed, enabling Gladden and his fellow survivors to crawl back towards Snag Trench in a desperate attempt to reach cover before daylight exposed their predicament. Col. Gibson and Maj. Wright had long since recognised the attack had failed and had set the occupants of Snag Trench to work preparing it for defence before returning to Bn HQ at 2am .

    The fusiliers endured heavy shelling all day until they were finally relieved by the 4th East Yorkshires at 2.45am on the 16th and were able to move back to the Flers Line. The 7th NF stayed in the front line and Fisher found himself in command of the remnants of the Bn:

    'We now had a trench strength of one officer and seventy-six men including the carrying party which came up during the night. The day passed quietly, and in the afternoon we were ordered to withdraw to the Abbaye supports. Here we found a ghastly sight. The trench was almost obliterated by shell-fire. The half of "C" Company which had remained behind had apparently scattered in depth in an attempt to avoid the well marked position of the trench but to little purpose. We had almost reached the limits of human endurance and in one case, which I sent to the dressing station, the mental strain had proved too much. During the evening the battalion was relieved, bringing to an end this fatal tour. Never in my comparatively long service with the battalion did we meet with such hardship and horrors as on this occasion, or, I believe, were so few left to tell the tale' [zotpressInText item="{S4S4TVNA}"].

    Norman Gladden’s group was relieved by the 4th East Yorks during the evening and also headed for the relative safety of the Flers Switch line:

    'We came at last to the ridge where we were to leave Pioneer Alley for the open. In front of one of the sandbagged dug-outs each man was served with hot coffee, a draught of thick black liquid that brought anew warmth into my body and made me offer thanks to heaven.

    The line moved on, a straggling weary snake stretching into the gloom, our figures throwing exaggerated shadows from the flares at dug-out openings. Two lone purposeful shells screamed over from the enemy, striking the ground not far from the spot where coffee was being served. After escaping so much, seven more of our company were added to the roll of death and four others were carried away on stretchers; the unkindest blow at the very edge of safety' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,166}"].

    Twenty-four hours of fighting claimed the lives of Capt. John Robinson and 2nd Lt Larken [note] 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken was only drafted to the Bn on the 17th of October 

  673. 2nd Lt Alan James Derrick (d. 15 Nov 1916) 7th NF Thiepval Memorial
  674.  Pte William James Newman (4/9048) (b. Wandsworth, Surrey) was transferred from the Norfolk Regt. Commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  675.  Pte Arthur Ernest Pyatt (4/5107), aged 25, and his brother Henry (4/5106), aged 34, enlisted in the Norfolk Regt at Hackney Baths. Thiepval Memorial 
  676.  Pte Joseph Davies (4/5304) was transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Joseph is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  677.  Pte Ernest Leopold Douglas (4/5133) served previously with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt, Norfolk Regt and 5th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  678. Pte Alfred George Woodward (4/5156) was transferred from the 1/4th East Yorks Regt. Alfred is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France
  679.  Pte Richard Dover (4/5379) (b. Brandon, Co Durham) served previously with the DLI. Richard is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  680. Pte Frank Bradbury (4/5301) (b. Saddleworth, Yorkshire) and transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Frank is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  681. Pte Bertie William Adcock (4/9007) served previously with the Norfolk Regt. Bertie is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.
  682. Pte John Glass (4/6656) (Scotswood, Newcastle) was transferred from the 1/6th NF. John is buried at Warlencourt British Cemetery
  683.  Pte Herbert Albert Boast (4/5206) (b.Norwich) and enlisted in the Norfolk Regt. He was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then 1/4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  684. Sgt William Anthony Charlton (4/35) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham). William is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  685.  The 10th (Service) Bn Gloucester Regiment were part of the 1st Bde, 1st Divn 
  686.  The Bombing School was most likely to have been near the village of Montigny-sur-l'Hallue, approximately nine miles west of Albert
  687. Lt Col Scott Jackson
  688. The Royal Engineers raised a total of eleven Labour Bns. They consisted of navvies, tradesmen and semi-skilled men and were used in construction of rear defence lines and similar works
  689. Bns were equipped with handcarts for the Lewis guns. Pack ponies -
  690.  The 4th Army Infantry School of Instruction was in Flixecourt - 
  691.  2nd Lt Bernard Roger Philip Hawken 
  692. Pierrots were at the height of popularity in seaside resorts at the end of the 19th Century, providing family orientated shows with music, song, dance, acrobatics and comedy sketches  
  693. 2nd Lt Coatsworth
  694. The 2nd Welsh Regiment was part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn. The Bn had been on the Western Front since August 1914
  695. 1st and 3rd Bdes (1st Divn)
  696.  The 1st South Wales Borderers were part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn and had been on the Western Front since August 1914 
  697. Captain, later Lt Col. Hugh Liddell, DSO, MC (1/7th NF)
  698. Listed in the London Gazette
  699.  London Gazette (1917) Capt. C. G. Arkwright M.C. 4th NF, to be acting Major whilst serving on HQ of a Bn from 20 Oct 18 to 30 Mar 19. Date: 2 Dec 19 Issue number: 31673 (Gazette, London, p. 15037). Northumberland Fusiliers- Lt. C. G. Arkwright M.C, to be acting Major whilst employed as Major on HQ. 11 Aug 17. Lt. D. T. Turner to be acting Capt whilst commanding a Coy. 1917 published on the 21 Sep 17. Page 17 of 20
  700.  2nd Lt William Maxson Collingwood Wilson 
  701. M.24.b.6.6 - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24
  702.  Fishtail bombs were a small trench mortar bomb used by the German Army 
  703. Pte Henry Spencer Beadle (4/5354) (b.e. Hessle, Yorks). Henry served previously with the 5th and 6th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  704.  Bayonet Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.18.d
  705.  Cobham Trench ran between the communication trenches Goose Alley and Turk Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24.c & N.13.c 
  706. The Minenwerfer was a German trench mortar
  707.  Cobham Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Reference M.24.c. The junction of Yarra Reserve with Yarra Avenue – Reference: M.24.d
  708. The 1st Northumbrian Field Coy Royal Engineers was renumbered the 446th Coy
  709. Clark’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57c SW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  710. Flers Reserve Trench -   Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0- 
  711. The 179th Tunnelling Coy was formed in the 3rd Army area in October 1915 
  712.  Factory Corner was the crossroads north of Flers taken by the New Zealand Divn on 25th Sep 1916: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: N.19.c.9.1
  713. Flers Reserve trench - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0
  714.  BP Dump
  715. Bazentin Circus - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.8.d 8.0
  716. High Wood Siding     - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  717. Clarke’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  718. Seven Elms dump - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.28.d
  719. ‘H’ Rations
  720. Private 12768 - Memoir of a Tommy - John Jackson [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,88}"]
  721. BP Dump – Langly Circus
  722. Canvas Camp -
  723.  Loupart Wood and Grevillers are approximately one mile north of the Butte De Warlencourt 
  724. A black frost was a dry freeze which kills and thus blackens vegetation because there is no protective layer of hoar frost
  725. The Regimental Aid Post (RAP) provided the first line of medical treatment for a wounded soldier.
  726. Coy HQ comprised the CO (Maj), 2 i/c (Capt), Coy Sergeant Major (CSM), Coy Quartermaster Sergeant (CQMS), two batmen and three drivers
  727.  Pte Arthur William Hannan (4/5425) ( b. Birstwith, Yorks). He was transferred to the 4th NF the 13th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  728.  Roye:  Lat/Long: 049 41’ 55 N  : 002 47’ 57 E
  729. Command Post PC Hedevaux: Belloy Map: Reference: N.27.c.5.4
  730. PC Buelow: Belloy Map: 62c and 62d - Ref: N.25.d.6.4
  731.  Boyau Bouchet trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.b
  732.  Argonne Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.27.d 
  733. French bomb store – Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.21.c.80
  734. Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.b
  735.  Bouchot: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a
  736.  Bois Damloup: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a.5.7
  737. Support trenches at the southern end of the sector:  Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.d
  738. Annamites Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref:  N.34.d
  739. Marchal Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.34.a
  740.  Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.33.b
  741.  Military History Encyclopedia on the Web (HistoryofWar.org) 
  742.  John Jackson (1st Cameron Highlanders, 1st Bde, 1st Divn) vividly describes the Bazentin le Petit and High Wood area in his published diary [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,79}"]
  743.  Crescent Alley: Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: 33.d 
  744. 26th Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d
  745.  Eaucourt L’Abbaye:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c 
  746. Destremont Farm: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.a
  747.  The village of Le Sars straddles the Albert-Baupaume road: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.16.c 
  748. This journey is described in Norman Gladden’s book [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,105}"]
  749.  North & South Durham trenches lay to the south of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.21.d & 21.c 
  750.  Rutherford Alley was a communication trench running north towards Le Sars:  Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.22.c 
  751.  Eaucourt d’Abbaye lies approximately three quarters of a mile south east of Le Sars: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.23.c
  752.  D16 – Map Reference: M23c.2.4 and D8- Map Reference: M23.c.3.7. [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,42}"]
  753.  Pte William Wood 4/5150 (b. Kettering
  754.  21st, 22nd, 23rd & 24th London Regt (142nd Bde, 47th Divn) 
  755.  Pte Maynard Frank Nunn 4/5010 (e. Cambridge
  756.  10th & 11th NF & 12th DLI (68th Bde, 23rd Divn) 
  757.  Pte Richard Henry Jacobs  4/5102 (e. West London
  758. James Henry Newman 4/5257 (b. Norwich) (e. Norwich)
  759.  During the First World War, the YMCA supports the troops. YMCA huts provide soldiers with food and a place to rest on the frontline or at home in military camps and railway stations. The YMCA embarked on a massive education programme for soldiers, which eventually becomes the Army Education Corps. [zotpressInText item="{IS6FHCKS}"]
  760. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,125}"] 
  761. D2 (Female 539) [zotpressInText item="{7CHAKXFB,47}"]
  762.  Soldiers Died in the Great War (SDITGW) and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)
  763.  Sgt William Moffat MM (7/1878) is buried in Abbeville Communal Cemetery Extension (d.21 Sep 1916). William and Margaret Moffatt resided at 24, Back Clayton Street in Bedlington, Northumberland. William had served in the South African War 
  764. 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken
  765. The camp at the south-east corner of Mametz Wood
  766.  5th Cameronians (26th Bde, 9th Divn)
  767.  1st, 2nd 3rd and 4th South African Regts (South African Bde, 9th Divn) 
  768.  RFA positions – 18 pounders etc 
  769. John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) Into Battle - A Soldiers Diary of the Great War [zotpressInText item="{ZZCPTDHK,68}"]
  770. 27th Bde - 6th KOSB, 11th & 12th Royal Scots, 9th Cameronians ( 9th Divn)
  771. [zotpressInText item="{62F7X4R4,48}"]
  772. 26th Bde - 8th Black Watch, 7th Seaforth Highlanders, 5th Cameron Highlanders, 10th Argyle & Sutherland Highlanders (9th Divn)
  773. Winston Churchill (1871-1947) was no relation of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, but coincidently both had political careers, were noted amateur painters, attended service colleges and briefly served simultaneously as officers in their respective countries' armed forces
  774.  When the Barrage Lifts: A Topographical History and Commentary on the Battle of the Somme 1916. [zotpressInText item="{TNPW6P94,115}"]
  775.  Dixies were large oval shaped cooking pots
  776.  Tinned meat & vegetable (M&V) stew was provided in 20 to 24 oz tins. The quality varied considerably from brand to brand, however the Maconochie Brothers brand was considered one of the better ones 
  777.  Pte John Calvert Sowerby (4/2799) (b. Denton) (e. Haltwhistle). John is buried at St Sever Cemetery Extension and commemorated on the Haltwhistle Memorial 
  778. Pte Frederick William Brett (4/5194), (e. Norfolk Regt) was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then the 4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  779.  Likely to have been 8th Black Watch (26th Bde) 
  780. Pte William Lewis (4/3814) (e. Nottingham). Thiepval Memorial, Somme
  781.  Pte William George Little (4/2189) (b. Bingfield) (e. Hexham). 4th Reserve Bn on 1st Sep 16. Thiepval Memorial, Somme 
  782. [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,140}"]
  783.  Red and green flares were usually fired from a Very pistol for signalling purposes and white flares to illuminate an area at night 
  784. An SOS Barrage
  785.  Pte Edgar Kaye (4/5068) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  786. Pte James Wray (4/5058) (b. Longwood, Yorks) (e. Huddersfield) was posted to the 4th from the 8th NF (8/29015). He is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  787. Pte Harold Wilby (4/5063) is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France
  788. Pte Edward Thomas Gillings (4/5123) (b. Gillings, Pembrokeshire) (e. Great Yarmouth) had previously served with the 5th NF (5/5804). He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  789.  Pte William James Goodrum (4/5066) (b. Great Yarmouth) (e. Newcastle) transferred to the 4th from the 8th NF (4/4468) 
  790. Pte Frederick Claxton (4/5212) (e. Norwich) was posted to the 4th NF from the East Yorks Regt (4/7921) and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  791. Pte John Elliott (4/3343)
  792.  Pte Enoch Shipley (4/5138) (e. Norfolk Regt (1591) Melton Constable, Norfolk) and was subsequently posted to the NF 
  793.  Pte William Surtees Leathard (4/4191) (b. Prudhoe) (e. Hexham) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  794. Pte William Lewis (4/3814), William George Little (4/2189) and George Edward Ward (  ) are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  795.  L/Cpl John Robertson (4/1369) (b. Newcastle) (e. Prudhoe) was wounded early 1915, reported to the 3/4th NF on 25 Jun 15 and drafted back to France 18 Sep 15. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  796. Allandale man L/Cpl Thomas Armstrong (4/1997) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  797.  Norman Gladden [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,138}"]
  798.  Wooden and metal sections or frames were often constructed behind the lines in RE workshops to enable the quick construction of dugouts in the trenches. Large packing crates were also used as shelters
  799.  Prudhoe man L/Cpl William Jackson (4/2058) was a recipient of the Military Medal and is buried in Dernancourt Communal Cemetery Extension 
  800.  Warlencourt Line: Presumed to mean the Gird Line 
  801. Haltwhistle man John Albert Nicholson (4/2693) is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. John was first taken on 3/4th NF strength - 11th Jun 15 
  802.  Pte Fred Willis (4/5157) (e. Northampton) served with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt prior to the NF. He is buried in Caterpillar Valley Cemetery near Longueval
  803.  The 50th Division 1914 - 1919 [zotpressInText item="{4R6FADJ9,}"]
  804.  The French sugar beet industry was a direct outcome of Britain’s blockade of French Ports during the Napoleonic Wars, which prevented the import of Sugar Cane. Napoleon decreed that French farmers should grow sugar beet and within two years approximately 160,000 acres were in cultivation and some 330 small refineries were producing 3,350 tons of sugar. The Somme was a major producer supporting more than 120 sugar refineries located in the Department (Inventory of Sugar Refineries) 
  805. The German 5th Grenadier Guard Regiment was of Prussian origin and part of the 4th Guard Infantry Divn
  806.  Duckboards (wooden planking) were used as trench flooring or to make paths across muddy ground 
  807. Pte John Clarke (4/3299) (b. Wigton, Cumberland) (e. Newcastle). John is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  808.  Pte Daniel Walden (4/5141) (e. Northwood, Middlesex). Daniel was transferred to the NF from the Norfolk Regt 
  809. Pte Harold Hiscock (4/5397) (b. York) (e. Hexham). Harold is commemorated on the Thiepval memorial
  810.  Pte Wilfred Hardwick (4/3685) (b. Mansfield, Notts) (e. Mansfield). Wilfred is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery, France 
  811.  A ‘Chinese’ barrage was a bogus attack 
  812.  Edward Grey. Lawson 
  813. Fletcher Hugh Lionel Woods
  814.  Sgt James R Richardson (1430) from Rothbury 
  815.  A/Sgt J. Piercy (290418) (b. Berwick on Tweed)( e. Alnwick)
  816. Capt Roger Cranage
  817. 2nd Lt T. Bonner
  818. 2nd Lt William Henry Fisher was drafted to France on 20 July 1916 
  819. Capt John Wilfred Robinson, the brother of Frank Robinson (4th NF) and George Sydney Robinson (1st Buffs) originated from Hexham. (Grint, p. 160) He was wounded in April 1915, but after returning to service with the 3/4th NF was drafted back to the 1/4th on the 4th of Aug 1915. John is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France. George was to die on the 26th April 18 
  820. Major N. I. Wright [note] returned to the front line at 11pm to reorganise the men in preparation for a fresh attack. For this task they had a 4th NF Coy and the 7th NF on the left flank and a 4th NF Coy and around thirty men from 'A' Coy 7th NF .

    The 4th NF and three strong bombing parties attacked again at 12.30amh,

    Even though suffering from the agony of trench foot, Pte Norman Gladden (7th NF) was ordered up into the front line:

    'The low trench was crammed with men – troops from our D Company and from the 4th Battalion. The parapet was lined with soldiers, their fixed bayonets glinting in the dimly lit night. An attack was being staged. I was struck dumb with amazement. The men were already clambering out of the trench. Hardly had the first man mounted the parapet when the enemy, as though sensing something unusual, sent up a myriad of lights which, bursting overhead, converted night into day. The steel-helmeted figures of the front wave stood out in sharp relief against the unearthly blue illumination. While we hesitated, bewildered by the suddenness of this manoeuvre, an officer pushed his way along the trench threatening with drawn revolver anyone who held back from going over. He pointed at me. I was flabbergasted. There must be some mistake: we had been told nothing. My astonished terror gave place to anger at the injustice of the whole business. At that moment I would sooner have killed the officer than any German' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,162}"].

    Gladden clambered out of the trench with the support wave of men, but was soon forced to seek the shelter of a large depression in the ground to evade the machine gun fire. The ground was constantly illuminated by the rise and fall of an assortment of red, green and yellow signal flares against a backdrop of artillery gun flashes:

    'The machine guns traversed back and forth, shearing the ground around us like mighty scythes. Rifles cracked incessantly and bullets spanged into the mud near our heads. In front we could hear the bursting of hand grenades hurled by the enemy, as much in fright as at specific targets, since there is little evidence that our front wave had got so far. Heavier shells crashed around us, but mainly behind since they were directed against the trench we had left. We were between two fires' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,163}"].

    The shell fire died down once the enemy were convinced that the attack had failed, enabling Gladden and his fellow survivors to crawl back towards Snag Trench in a desperate attempt to reach cover before daylight exposed their predicament. Col. Gibson and Maj. Wright had long since recognised the attack had failed and had set the occupants of Snag Trench to work preparing it for defence before returning to Bn HQ at 2am .

    The fusiliers endured heavy shelling all day until they were finally relieved by the 4th East Yorkshires at 2.45am on the 16th and were able to move back to the Flers Line. The 7th NF stayed in the front line and Fisher found himself in command of the remnants of the Bn:

    'We now had a trench strength of one officer and seventy-six men including the carrying party which came up during the night. The day passed quietly, and in the afternoon we were ordered to withdraw to the Abbaye supports. Here we found a ghastly sight. The trench was almost obliterated by shell-fire. The half of "C" Company which had remained behind had apparently scattered in depth in an attempt to avoid the well marked position of the trench but to little purpose. We had almost reached the limits of human endurance and in one case, which I sent to the dressing station, the mental strain had proved too much. During the evening the battalion was relieved, bringing to an end this fatal tour. Never in my comparatively long service with the battalion did we meet with such hardship and horrors as on this occasion, or, I believe, were so few left to tell the tale' [zotpressInText item="{S4S4TVNA}"].

    Norman Gladden’s group was relieved by the 4th East Yorks during the evening and also headed for the relative safety of the Flers Switch line:

    'We came at last to the ridge where we were to leave Pioneer Alley for the open. In front of one of the sandbagged dug-outs each man was served with hot coffee, a draught of thick black liquid that brought anew warmth into my body and made me offer thanks to heaven.

    The line moved on, a straggling weary snake stretching into the gloom, our figures throwing exaggerated shadows from the flares at dug-out openings. Two lone purposeful shells screamed over from the enemy, striking the ground not far from the spot where coffee was being served. After escaping so much, seven more of our company were added to the roll of death and four others were carried away on stretchers; the unkindest blow at the very edge of safety' [zotpressInText item="{53JCQRAK,166}"].

    Twenty-four hours of fighting claimed the lives of Capt. John Robinson and 2nd Lt Larken [note] 2nd Lt Frederick James Larken was only drafted to the Bn on the 17th of October 

  821. 2nd Lt Alan James Derrick (d. 15 Nov 1916) 7th NF Thiepval Memorial
  822.  Pte William James Newman (4/9048) (b. Wandsworth, Surrey) was transferred from the Norfolk Regt. Commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  823.  Pte Arthur Ernest Pyatt (4/5107), aged 25, and his brother Henry (4/5106), aged 34, enlisted in the Norfolk Regt at Hackney Baths. Thiepval Memorial 
  824.  Pte Joseph Davies (4/5304) was transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Joseph is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  825.  Pte Ernest Leopold Douglas (4/5133) served previously with the 1/4th East Yorks Regt, Norfolk Regt and 5th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  826. Pte Alfred George Woodward (4/5156) was transferred from the 1/4th East Yorks Regt. Alfred is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, France
  827.  Pte Richard Dover (4/5379) (b. Brandon, Co Durham) served previously with the DLI. Richard is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  828. Pte Frank Bradbury (4/5301) (b. Saddleworth, Yorkshire) and transferred to the 4th from the 1st NF. Frank is buried in Warlencourt British Cemetery
  829. Pte Bertie William Adcock (4/9007) served previously with the Norfolk Regt. Bertie is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.
  830. Pte John Glass (4/6656) (Scotswood, Newcastle) was transferred from the 1/6th NF. John is buried at Warlencourt British Cemetery
  831.  Pte Herbert Albert Boast (4/5206) (b.Norwich) and enlisted in the Norfolk Regt. He was transferred to the East Yorks Regt and then 1/4th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial 
  832. Sgt William Anthony Charlton (4/35) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham). William is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  833.  The 10th (Service) Bn Gloucester Regiment were part of the 1st Bde, 1st Divn 
  834.  The Bombing School was most likely to have been near the village of Montigny-sur-l'Hallue, approximately nine miles west of Albert
  835. Lt Col Scott Jackson
  836. The Royal Engineers raised a total of eleven Labour Bns. They consisted of navvies, tradesmen and semi-skilled men and were used in construction of rear defence lines and similar works
  837. Bns were equipped with handcarts for the Lewis guns. Pack ponies -
  838.  The 4th Army Infantry School of Instruction was in Flixecourt - 
  839.  2nd Lt Bernard Roger Philip Hawken 
  840. Pierrots were at the height of popularity in seaside resorts at the end of the 19th Century, providing family orientated shows with music, song, dance, acrobatics and comedy sketches  
  841. 2nd Lt Coatsworth
  842. The 2nd Welsh Regiment was part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn. The Bn had been on the Western Front since August 1914
  843. 1st and 3rd Bdes (1st Divn)
  844.  The 1st South Wales Borderers were part of the 3rd Bde, 1st Divn and had been on the Western Front since August 1914 
  845. Captain, later Lt Col. Hugh Liddell, DSO, MC (1/7th NF)
  846. Listed in the London Gazette
  847.  London Gazette (1917) Capt. C. G. Arkwright M.C. 4th NF, to be acting Major whilst serving on HQ of a Bn from 20 Oct 18 to 30 Mar 19. Date: 2 Dec 19 Issue number: 31673 (Gazette, London, p. 15037). Northumberland Fusiliers- Lt. C. G. Arkwright M.C, to be acting Major whilst employed as Major on HQ. 11 Aug 17. Lt. D. T. Turner to be acting Capt whilst commanding a Coy. 1917 published on the 21 Sep 17. Page 17 of 20
  848.  2nd Lt William Maxson Collingwood Wilson 
  849. M.24.b.6.6 - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24
  850.  Fishtail bombs were a small trench mortar bomb used by the German Army 
  851. Pte Henry Spencer Beadle (4/5354) (b.e. Hessle, Yorks). Henry served previously with the 5th and 6th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  852.  Bayonet Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.18.d
  853.  Cobham Trench ran between the communication trenches Goose Alley and Turk Avenue: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.24.c & N.13.c 
  854. The Minenwerfer was a German trench mortar
  855.  Cobham Trench: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Reference M.24.c. The junction of Yarra Reserve with Yarra Avenue – Reference: M.24.d
  856. The 1st Northumbrian Field Coy Royal Engineers was renumbered the 446th Coy
  857. Clark’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57c SW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  858. Flers Reserve Trench -   Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0- 
  859. The 179th Tunnelling Coy was formed in the 3rd Army area in October 1915 
  860.  Factory Corner was the crossroads north of Flers taken by the New Zealand Divn on 25th Sep 1916: Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: N.19.c.9.1
  861. Flers Reserve trench - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.30.c.4.0
  862.  BP Dump
  863. Bazentin Circus - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.8.d 8.0
  864. High Wood Siding     - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  865. Clarke’s Dump - Longueval Map: 57cSW3 - Ref: S.3.d.4.7
  866. Seven Elms dump - Gueudecourt Map: 57cSW1-3A - Ref: M.28.d
  867. ‘H’ Rations
  868. Private 12768 - Memoir of a Tommy - John Jackson [zotpressInText item="{T7MXJX47,88}"]
  869. BP Dump – Langly Circus
  870. Canvas Camp -
  871.  Loupart Wood and Grevillers are approximately one mile north of the Butte De Warlencourt 
  872. A black frost was a dry freeze which kills and thus blackens vegetation because there is no protective layer of hoar frost
  873. The Regimental Aid Post (RAP) provided the first line of medical treatment for a wounded soldier.
  874. Coy HQ comprised the CO (Maj), 2 i/c (Capt), Coy Sergeant Major (CSM), Coy Quartermaster Sergeant (CQMS), two batmen and three drivers
  875.  Pte Arthur William Hannan (4/5425) ( b. Birstwith, Yorks). He was transferred to the 4th NF the 13th NF. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial
  876.  Roye:  Lat/Long: 049 41’ 55 N  : 002 47’ 57 E
  877. Command Post PC Hedevaux: Belloy Map: Reference: N.27.c.5.4
  878. PC Buelow: Belloy Map: 62c and 62d - Ref: N.25.d.6.4
  879.  Boyau Bouchet trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.b
  880.  Argonne Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.27.d 
  881. French bomb store – Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.21.c.80
  882. Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.b
  883.  Bouchot: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a
  884.  Bois Damloup: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.34.a.5.7
  885. Support trenches at the southern end of the sector:  Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref: N.33.d
  886. Annamites Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 – Ref:  N.34.d
  887. Marchal Trench: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.34.a
  888.  Trench de Hures: Belloy Map: 62cSW1 &2 - Ref: N.33.b

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