Chapter 3b – Back in the Salient

Hill 60 Advanced parties set off for the rest billets, to the rear of the Hill 60 lines, in the new area on Wednesday the 15th of December. Over the following two days the 5th…

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Footnotes

  1. Pioneer battalions were formed from late 1914 onwards, or converted from existing infantry battalions, to carry out digging and construction work
  2.  Railway dugouts were in the Ypres-Comines railway line embankment. The area was also called Transport Farm, probably because it was the closest transport wagons would venture to the front line in the Hill 60 sector.  Now the site of a CWGC cemetery – Map Ref: 
  3. Bedford House  - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.26.a.9.4
  4.  Blauwe Poort Farm originally had a moat around three sides of the farm buildings – Zillebeke Map 10-28NW45A - Ref: I.26.b.6.4
  5. Canada Huts was a hutted military encampment located near Dickebusch at M.17.c. The camp appears to have been renamed at some point
  6. The Dump - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.29.c.2.4
  7.  Café Belge - Ypres Map 28NW4 – Ref: H.29.b.8.4 
  8.  The Ravine - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.34.b
  9. Zwarteleen - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.29.d.7.8
  10. The origin of the term 'strafe' was the German ‘strafen’ (to punish) and was commonly applied to machine gun fire, but also used to describe a bombardment
  11.  Gum boots were rubber boots or waders and ideal for use in the waterlogged trenches 
  12.  Lt Robert Allen - Database shows this man killed, but also POW in 1918? 
  13. Lt Charles Arthur Collingwood was drafted from the 15th NF on 19 August 1915 
  14.  Cpl Joseph Yeomans (4/1613) ‘C’ Coy (b. Haltwhistle) was wounded on 26 Apr 15 and was reported in the Evening Chronicle on 3 May 15. Yeomans is buried in Railway Dugouts Cemetery near Ypres
  15. Pte Edward Riddel Hedley (4/866) (‘B’ Coy) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. Railway Dugouts Burial Ground, Ypres, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  16. Pte Richard Rigby (4/2513) (e. Newburn) and embarked for France on 19 Apr 15 
  17.  Pte William Watt (4/2716) ‘A’ Coy was taken on 3/4th NF strength on 11th Jun 15 and drafted to France on 3rd Sep 15. Both are buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  18.  Pte Alexander Ure (4/2825) ‘B’ Coy was one of five brothers. He was drafted from the 3/4th NF at some stage during Sep 1915 
  19.  2nd Lt Stephenson (‘A’ Coy)
  20.  Private Charles Gordon Sharp had previously served with the Inns of Court OTC, but was commissioned into the NF on 27th March, 1915. (London Gazette, p. 3690). Charles was born in Bywell and was the son of steamship owner Robert Sharp 
  21. Hexham man Pte Adolphus Forster (4/1484) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. He was wounded during the early fighting but returned to serve with the battalion. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  22. Scottish Lines - Poperinghe Map: 28NW3-3a – Ref: G.23.b.3.8
  23. The 24th Divn was comprised of the 17th, 72nd and 73rd Infantry Bdes
  24. The 3rd Battalion of the Rifles was in the 17th Rifle Bde (24th Divn)
  25. Pte James Grieve (4/2796) joined the 4th NF as part of a draft from the 3/4th NF on 3rd Sep 1915. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  26. Pte Edward Carr (4/2524) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  27. Cpl Robert Towler (4/372) enlisted in ‘D’ Prudhoe Coy and embarked for France with the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  28. The 17th Divn was comprised of the 50th, 51st and 52nd Infantry Bdes
  29. The Bluff was the name given to a spoilheap created when the Ypres- Comines canal was cut through the Messines ridge. Zillebeke Map - Reference: I.34.c.3.2  
  30.  Q.6.a and Other Places – Recollections of 1916, 1917, 1918. [zotpressInText item="{Z5UXG9XQ,35}"]
  31. The 76th Bde (3rd Divn) was comprised the 1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt and the 8th King’s Own.
  32.  Lt William Turner
  33.  Bedford House is now the site of a CWGC cemetery 
  34.  L/Cpl Joshua Benjamin Robson (4/1803) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. (Grint, 2006) 
  35.  V Corps Cdr (Lt Gen. H. Fanshawe) placed the 76th Bde, 3rd Divn (1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt, 8th King’s Own) an additional RFA Bde and 172nd Tunnelling Coy under 17th Divn command for the attack 
  36. 52nd Bde was part of the 17th Divn
  37.  Pte Thirlwell Storey (4/513) (b. Haltwhistle) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  38. Wilfred Marshall Henderson (4/869) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  39.  Pte Archibald Bell (4/857) (b. Bellingham) (e. Falstone). He embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 1915. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Cemetery and commemorated at Corsenside St Cuthbert? 
  40.  The 2nd Canadian Divn (4th, 5th and 6th Canadian Bdes) was formed in Britain after the arrival of a number of Canadian units 
  41. Armagh Wood - Map 28NE3  - Ref: H.30.a
  42. CSM William Sharp (4/322) (b. Hexham) (e. Prudhoe)
  43. General Sir Douglas Haig – GOC BEF
  44.  Numerous Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) centres and canteens were established in huts and marquees along lines of communication, near casualty clearing stations and in rest camps. They were staffed by male and female volunteers and provided soldiers with shelter, food, drink, free writing paper and envelopes
  45. Mount Sorrel - Map 28NE3 - Ref: I.30.a b c d.
  46. Square Wood - Map 28NE3  Ref: I.29.b.
  47. The 16th Canadian (Scottish) Battalion was part of the 3rd Bde of the 1st Canadian Divn
  48. Canada Huts - Ouderdom - Poperinghe Map: 10-28NW3-3A - Ref: G.30.c.2.6.
  49. Locre - Kemmel Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.23.c.4.4
  50. Westoutre - Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.9.c
  51. Byron Farm - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.a.3.4
  52.  Bois Confluent -  Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.7.b.5.9 
  53. Streets and Alleys were the names typically applied to communication trenches
  54.  The Hospice - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.19.a.8.8
  55.  Hollandscheschuur  Farm Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.b
  56.  York House Farm - Map 28.SW.2 Ref: 16.c.9.3
  57. Drummer Thomas William Cathrae (4/1490) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery in Belgium. (Grint, 2006)
  58. Pte James Hedley (4/677) was wounded during the attack on St Julien. After regaining fitness with the 3/4th NF he was drafted back to ‘B’ Coy 1/4th NF sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery, Belgium
  59. Pte David Salkeld (4/1917) was drafted from the 3/4th NF, sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  60. St George was the patron saint of the Northumberland Fusiliers
  61. The 13th (Service) King’s Liverpool Regt joined 9th Bde (3rd Divn) on the 4th of April 1916 
  62. The specialists were the machine gunners, bombers and signallers etc
  63.  It was mandatory for British troops to be inoculated to protect against Typhoid (not to be confused with Typhus) and Cholera infection.   The bacterium behind both diseases were transmitted through the faecal-oral route so could quickly and easily spread in the trenches where there was mass concentration of troops exposed to poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene.  Water supplies were not strictly controlled. [zotpress items="BG35N3GM" style="harvard1"]
  64.  Quarantine is likely to have been imposed to limit the spread of Measles (Rubeola) or possibly Meningitis. It would be another 50 years before a Measles vaccine was developed, so quarantine was the only effective way to limit its spread. The symptoms of measles were similar to a cold, but were coupled with sensitivity to light, high temperature, lack of energy, aches and pains, poor appetite, a rash and cough. It rarely killed, but there were common complications that could incapacitate its victims, particularly soldiers whose health, living standards and nutrition were probably already seriously tested
  65. The 1st Battalion NF was part of the 9th Bde (3rd Divn)
  66. CSM J.W. Smith (4/32) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry on many occasions. He has invariably exhibited the greatest bravery and coolness under fire, always volunteering to undertake any hazardous work and setting a splendid example of devotion to duty to all ranks with him. (London Gazette, 1916)
  67.  John Edward Mogerly (4/920) Citation – For conspicuous gallantry and devotion; he volunteered to take charge of four SAA carts, which he brought safely in and unloaded under heavy fire. He was subsequently wounded in the head, but refused to go into hospital, and showed great coolness (London Gazette, 1916) 
  68.  Bandsman J. Forster (4/328) - Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded over long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance (London Gazette, 1916) [note] and Cameron [note] Cameron (4/329) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30 pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance. (London Gazette, 1916). 
  69. Machine gun fire
  70. Siege Farm was northeast of Kemmel, approx one mile behind the lines - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.16.c.3.9
  71. RE Farm was northwest of Kemmel - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.15.c.1.5
  72. Trench L1 - Kemmel Map : 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.18.c.4.8
  73.  Trench L2 - Map Ref: N.18.a.5.1 
  74.  Trench L3 - Map Ref: N.18.c.4.8 
  75. Trench L4 - Map Ref: N.18.a.8.4
  76. .

    The support trenches consisted mainly of breastworks and were very close to the front line. K2 Support stood alone, but could be reached in daylight. L1 Support, L6 and L7R were linked whereas L7L was isolated and could only be reached by night. A surreal aspect of the sector was the fact that farms and houses close up behind the front line were still occupied by the local inhabitants, few farms behind Battalion HQ had been seriously damaged and the land in front of the 18-pounder Battery positions was still being ploughed.

    2nd Lt’s Wilson and Reeve [note] 2nd Lt Wilson and F.H.E Reeve

  77. Pte Joseph Bell (4/2129) ‘D’ Coy was buried in Sanctuary Wood cemetery and is commemorated on the Mickley War Memorial. He left a wife and four children
  78.  The Stokes Mortar was designed in 1914 by English engineer, Sir Wilfred Scott-Stokes. Mortars were designed to ‘lob’ high explosive shells on a high trajectory into enemy trenches. The advantage of the Stokes was that it was relatively small, simple and light for infantrymen to operate. It consisted of a 3’’ diameter tube with a striker at the bottom. Bombs, fitted with firing cartridges at the base, were dropped into the tube and the cartridge fired when it hit the striker 
  79. The Petit Bois (small wood) to the rear and left of the German line, in which trench mortar batteries and guns of all sizes were housed
  80.  2nd Lt Frank Priestman Lees enlisted in the 16th NF at the outbreak of war, but was commissioned and transferred to the 4th NF in April 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery (Grint, 2006)
  81. L/Cpl Robert Watson (4/1212) ‘D’ Coy was previously wounded on the 31 Aug 1915. Robert is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  82.  La Clytte - Kemmel Map: Ref: N.7.c.9.8 
  83. 2nd Lt  Henry Roleson Tully -
  84.  2nd Lt James Hope-Wallace - 
  85. 2nd Lt H.W. Rennison -
  86. The base – This draft is believed to have consisted of men who had enlisted and trained with the Norfolk Regt
  87. 6th Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow) battalion formed at Yorkshill Street in Glasgow. The battalion was in Egypt at this time, so it seems likely the officers were diverted on initial posting , after home or sick leave
  88.  Bulford Camp - Bailluel Map: 28SW3-2B – Ref: T.26.a.5.9
  89. Cooker’s Farm - Ploegsteert Map 28SW4 – Ref: - N.35.c.4.8
  90. Daylight Corner - Bailleul Map: 28SW3-2B - Ref: N.33.c.9.7
  91. Sgt Charlton served with the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC)
  92.  Pte Charles Grant (4/1429) (b. Mickley) (e. Hexham). He is buried in Bailleul Communal Cemetery Extension, France
  93. Pte John Robert Sanderson (4/3615) was born and enlisted in Hull. He is buried at St Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery
  94. 200mm trench mortar
  95. The 10th (Service) Royal Warwickshire Regt and 8th (Service) North Staffordshire Regt (57th Bde, 19th (Western) Divn)
  96. Badajos Huts – Location unknown at present. May have been renamed on 1918 map
  97. Pioneer battalions were formed from late 1914 onwards, or converted from existing infantry battalions, to carry out digging and construction work
  98.  Railway dugouts were in the Ypres-Comines railway line embankment. The area was also called Transport Farm, probably because it was the closest transport wagons would venture to the front line in the Hill 60 sector.  Now the site of a CWGC cemetery – Map Ref: 
  99. Bedford House  - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.26.a.9.4
  100.  Blauwe Poort Farm originally had a moat around three sides of the farm buildings – Zillebeke Map 10-28NW45A - Ref: I.26.b.6.4
  101. Canada Huts was a hutted military encampment located near Dickebusch at M.17.c. The camp appears to have been renamed at some point
  102. The Dump - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.29.c.2.4
  103.  Café Belge - Ypres Map 28NW4 – Ref: H.29.b.8.4 
  104.  The Ravine - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.34.b
  105. Zwarteleen - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.29.d.7.8
  106. The origin of the term 'strafe' was the German ‘strafen’ (to punish) and was commonly applied to machine gun fire, but also used to describe a bombardment
  107.  Gum boots were rubber boots or waders and ideal for use in the waterlogged trenches 
  108.  Lt Robert Allen - Database shows this man killed, but also POW in 1918? 
  109. Lt Charles Arthur Collingwood was drafted from the 15th NF on 19 August 1915 
  110.  Cpl Joseph Yeomans (4/1613) ‘C’ Coy (b. Haltwhistle) was wounded on 26 Apr 15 and was reported in the Evening Chronicle on 3 May 15. Yeomans is buried in Railway Dugouts Cemetery near Ypres
  111. Pte Edward Riddel Hedley (4/866) (‘B’ Coy) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. Railway Dugouts Burial Ground, Ypres, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  112. Pte Richard Rigby (4/2513) (e. Newburn) and embarked for France on 19 Apr 15 
  113.  Pte William Watt (4/2716) ‘A’ Coy was taken on 3/4th NF strength on 11th Jun 15 and drafted to France on 3rd Sep 15. Both are buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  114.  Pte Alexander Ure (4/2825) ‘B’ Coy was one of five brothers. He was drafted from the 3/4th NF at some stage during Sep 1915 
  115.  2nd Lt Stephenson (‘A’ Coy)
  116.  Private Charles Gordon Sharp had previously served with the Inns of Court OTC, but was commissioned into the NF on 27th March, 1915. (London Gazette, p. 3690). Charles was born in Bywell and was the son of steamship owner Robert Sharp 
  117. Hexham man Pte Adolphus Forster (4/1484) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. He was wounded during the early fighting but returned to serve with the battalion. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  118. Scottish Lines - Poperinghe Map: 28NW3-3a – Ref: G.23.b.3.8
  119. The 24th Divn was comprised of the 17th, 72nd and 73rd Infantry Bdes
  120. The 3rd Battalion of the Rifles was in the 17th Rifle Bde (24th Divn)
  121. Pte James Grieve (4/2796) joined the 4th NF as part of a draft from the 3/4th NF on 3rd Sep 1915. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  122. Pte Edward Carr (4/2524) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  123. Cpl Robert Towler (4/372) enlisted in ‘D’ Prudhoe Coy and embarked for France with the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  124. The 17th Divn was comprised of the 50th, 51st and 52nd Infantry Bdes
  125. The Bluff was the name given to a spoilheap created when the Ypres- Comines canal was cut through the Messines ridge. Zillebeke Map - Reference: I.34.c.3.2  
  126.  Q.6.a and Other Places – Recollections of 1916, 1917, 1918. [zotpressInText item="{Z5UXG9XQ,35}"]
  127. The 76th Bde (3rd Divn) was comprised the 1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt and the 8th King’s Own.
  128.  Lt William Turner
  129.  Bedford House is now the site of a CWGC cemetery 
  130.  L/Cpl Joshua Benjamin Robson (4/1803) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. (Grint, 2006) 
  131.  V Corps Cdr (Lt Gen. H. Fanshawe) placed the 76th Bde, 3rd Divn (1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt, 8th King’s Own) an additional RFA Bde and 172nd Tunnelling Coy under 17th Divn command for the attack 
  132. 52nd Bde was part of the 17th Divn
  133.  Pte Thirlwell Storey (4/513) (b. Haltwhistle) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  134. Wilfred Marshall Henderson (4/869) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  135.  Pte Archibald Bell (4/857) (b. Bellingham) (e. Falstone). He embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 1915. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Cemetery and commemorated at Corsenside St Cuthbert? 
  136.  The 2nd Canadian Divn (4th, 5th and 6th Canadian Bdes) was formed in Britain after the arrival of a number of Canadian units 
  137. Armagh Wood - Map 28NE3  - Ref: H.30.a
  138. CSM William Sharp (4/322) (b. Hexham) (e. Prudhoe)
  139. General Sir Douglas Haig – GOC BEF
  140.  Numerous Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) centres and canteens were established in huts and marquees along lines of communication, near casualty clearing stations and in rest camps. They were staffed by male and female volunteers and provided soldiers with shelter, food, drink, free writing paper and envelopes
  141. Mount Sorrel - Map 28NE3 - Ref: I.30.a b c d.
  142. Square Wood - Map 28NE3  Ref: I.29.b.
  143. The 16th Canadian (Scottish) Battalion was part of the 3rd Bde of the 1st Canadian Divn
  144. Canada Huts - Ouderdom - Poperinghe Map: 10-28NW3-3A - Ref: G.30.c.2.6.
  145. Locre - Kemmel Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.23.c.4.4
  146. Westoutre - Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.9.c
  147. Byron Farm - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.a.3.4
  148.  Bois Confluent -  Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.7.b.5.9 
  149. Streets and Alleys were the names typically applied to communication trenches
  150.  The Hospice - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.19.a.8.8
  151.  Hollandscheschuur  Farm Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.b
  152.  York House Farm - Map 28.SW.2 Ref: 16.c.9.3
  153. Drummer Thomas William Cathrae (4/1490) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery in Belgium. (Grint, 2006)
  154. Pte James Hedley (4/677) was wounded during the attack on St Julien. After regaining fitness with the 3/4th NF he was drafted back to ‘B’ Coy 1/4th NF sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery, Belgium
  155. Pte David Salkeld (4/1917) was drafted from the 3/4th NF, sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  156. St George was the patron saint of the Northumberland Fusiliers
  157. The 13th (Service) King’s Liverpool Regt joined 9th Bde (3rd Divn) on the 4th of April 1916 
  158. The specialists were the machine gunners, bombers and signallers etc
  159.  It was mandatory for British troops to be inoculated to protect against Typhoid (not to be confused with Typhus) and Cholera infection.   The bacterium behind both diseases were transmitted through the faecal-oral route so could quickly and easily spread in the trenches where there was mass concentration of troops exposed to poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene.  Water supplies were not strictly controlled. [zotpress items="BG35N3GM" style="harvard1"]
  160.  Quarantine is likely to have been imposed to limit the spread of Measles (Rubeola) or possibly Meningitis. It would be another 50 years before a Measles vaccine was developed, so quarantine was the only effective way to limit its spread. The symptoms of measles were similar to a cold, but were coupled with sensitivity to light, high temperature, lack of energy, aches and pains, poor appetite, a rash and cough. It rarely killed, but there were common complications that could incapacitate its victims, particularly soldiers whose health, living standards and nutrition were probably already seriously tested
  161. The 1st Battalion NF was part of the 9th Bde (3rd Divn)
  162. CSM J.W. Smith (4/32) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry on many occasions. He has invariably exhibited the greatest bravery and coolness under fire, always volunteering to undertake any hazardous work and setting a splendid example of devotion to duty to all ranks with him. (London Gazette, 1916)
  163.  John Edward Mogerly (4/920) Citation – For conspicuous gallantry and devotion; he volunteered to take charge of four SAA carts, which he brought safely in and unloaded under heavy fire. He was subsequently wounded in the head, but refused to go into hospital, and showed great coolness (London Gazette, 1916) 
  164.  Bandsman J. Forster (4/328) - Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded over long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance (London Gazette, 1916) [note] and Cameron [note] Cameron (4/329) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30 pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance. (London Gazette, 1916). 
  165. Machine gun fire
  166. Siege Farm was northeast of Kemmel, approx one mile behind the lines - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.16.c.3.9
  167. RE Farm was northwest of Kemmel - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.15.c.1.5
  168. Trench L1 - Kemmel Map : 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.18.c.4.8
  169.  Trench L2 - Map Ref: N.18.a.5.1 
  170.  Trench L3 - Map Ref: N.18.c.4.8 
  171. Trench L4 - Map Ref: N.18.a.8.4
  172. .

    The support trenches consisted mainly of breastworks and were very close to the front line. K2 Support stood alone, but could be reached in daylight. L1 Support, L6 and L7R were linked whereas L7L was isolated and could only be reached by night. A surreal aspect of the sector was the fact that farms and houses close up behind the front line were still occupied by the local inhabitants, few farms behind Battalion HQ had been seriously damaged and the land in front of the 18-pounder Battery positions was still being ploughed.

    2nd Lt’s Wilson and Reeve [note] 2nd Lt Wilson and F.H.E Reeve

  173. Pte Joseph Bell (4/2129) ‘D’ Coy was buried in Sanctuary Wood cemetery and is commemorated on the Mickley War Memorial. He left a wife and four children
  174.  The Stokes Mortar was designed in 1914 by English engineer, Sir Wilfred Scott-Stokes. Mortars were designed to ‘lob’ high explosive shells on a high trajectory into enemy trenches. The advantage of the Stokes was that it was relatively small, simple and light for infantrymen to operate. It consisted of a 3’’ diameter tube with a striker at the bottom. Bombs, fitted with firing cartridges at the base, were dropped into the tube and the cartridge fired when it hit the striker 
  175. The Petit Bois (small wood) to the rear and left of the German line, in which trench mortar batteries and guns of all sizes were housed
  176.  2nd Lt Frank Priestman Lees enlisted in the 16th NF at the outbreak of war, but was commissioned and transferred to the 4th NF in April 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery (Grint, 2006)
  177. L/Cpl Robert Watson (4/1212) ‘D’ Coy was previously wounded on the 31 Aug 1915. Robert is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  178.  La Clytte - Kemmel Map: Ref: N.7.c.9.8 
  179. 2nd Lt  Henry Roleson Tully -
  180.  2nd Lt James Hope-Wallace - 
  181. 2nd Lt H.W. Rennison -
  182. The base – This draft is believed to have consisted of men who had enlisted and trained with the Norfolk Regt
  183. 6th Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow) battalion formed at Yorkshill Street in Glasgow. The battalion was in Egypt at this time, so it seems likely the officers were diverted on initial posting , after home or sick leave
  184.  Bulford Camp - Bailluel Map: 28SW3-2B – Ref: T.26.a.5.9
  185. Cooker’s Farm - Ploegsteert Map 28SW4 – Ref: - N.35.c.4.8
  186. Daylight Corner - Bailleul Map: 28SW3-2B - Ref: N.33.c.9.7
  187. Sgt Charlton served with the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC)
  188.  Pte Charles Grant (4/1429) (b. Mickley) (e. Hexham). He is buried in Bailleul Communal Cemetery Extension, France
  189. Pte John Robert Sanderson (4/3615) was born and enlisted in Hull. He is buried at St Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery
  190. 200mm trench mortar
  191. The 10th (Service) Royal Warwickshire Regt and 8th (Service) North Staffordshire Regt (57th Bde, 19th (Western) Divn)
  192. Badajos Huts – Location unknown at present. May have been renamed on 1918 map
  193. Pioneer battalions were formed from late 1914 onwards, or converted from existing infantry battalions, to carry out digging and construction work
  194.  Railway dugouts were in the Ypres-Comines railway line embankment. The area was also called Transport Farm, probably because it was the closest transport wagons would venture to the front line in the Hill 60 sector.  Now the site of a CWGC cemetery – Map Ref: 
  195. Bedford House  - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.26.a.9.4
  196.  Blauwe Poort Farm originally had a moat around three sides of the farm buildings – Zillebeke Map 10-28NW45A - Ref: I.26.b.6.4
  197. Canada Huts was a hutted military encampment located near Dickebusch at M.17.c. The camp appears to have been renamed at some point
  198. The Dump - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.29.c.2.4
  199.  Café Belge - Ypres Map 28NW4 – Ref: H.29.b.8.4 
  200.  The Ravine - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.34.b
  201. Zwarteleen - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.29.d.7.8
  202. The origin of the term 'strafe' was the German ‘strafen’ (to punish) and was commonly applied to machine gun fire, but also used to describe a bombardment
  203.  Gum boots were rubber boots or waders and ideal for use in the waterlogged trenches 
  204.  Lt Robert Allen - Database shows this man killed, but also POW in 1918? 
  205. Lt Charles Arthur Collingwood was drafted from the 15th NF on 19 August 1915 
  206.  Cpl Joseph Yeomans (4/1613) ‘C’ Coy (b. Haltwhistle) was wounded on 26 Apr 15 and was reported in the Evening Chronicle on 3 May 15. Yeomans is buried in Railway Dugouts Cemetery near Ypres
  207. Pte Edward Riddel Hedley (4/866) (‘B’ Coy) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. Railway Dugouts Burial Ground, Ypres, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  208. Pte Richard Rigby (4/2513) (e. Newburn) and embarked for France on 19 Apr 15 
  209.  Pte William Watt (4/2716) ‘A’ Coy was taken on 3/4th NF strength on 11th Jun 15 and drafted to France on 3rd Sep 15. Both are buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  210.  Pte Alexander Ure (4/2825) ‘B’ Coy was one of five brothers. He was drafted from the 3/4th NF at some stage during Sep 1915 
  211.  2nd Lt Stephenson (‘A’ Coy)
  212.  Private Charles Gordon Sharp had previously served with the Inns of Court OTC, but was commissioned into the NF on 27th March, 1915. (London Gazette, p. 3690). Charles was born in Bywell and was the son of steamship owner Robert Sharp 
  213. Hexham man Pte Adolphus Forster (4/1484) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. He was wounded during the early fighting but returned to serve with the battalion. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  214. Scottish Lines - Poperinghe Map: 28NW3-3a – Ref: G.23.b.3.8
  215. The 24th Divn was comprised of the 17th, 72nd and 73rd Infantry Bdes
  216. The 3rd Battalion of the Rifles was in the 17th Rifle Bde (24th Divn)
  217. Pte James Grieve (4/2796) joined the 4th NF as part of a draft from the 3/4th NF on 3rd Sep 1915. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  218. Pte Edward Carr (4/2524) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  219. Cpl Robert Towler (4/372) enlisted in ‘D’ Prudhoe Coy and embarked for France with the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  220. The 17th Divn was comprised of the 50th, 51st and 52nd Infantry Bdes
  221. The Bluff was the name given to a spoilheap created when the Ypres- Comines canal was cut through the Messines ridge. Zillebeke Map - Reference: I.34.c.3.2  
  222.  Q.6.a and Other Places – Recollections of 1916, 1917, 1918. [zotpressInText item="{Z5UXG9XQ,35}"]
  223. The 76th Bde (3rd Divn) was comprised the 1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt and the 8th King’s Own.
  224.  Lt William Turner
  225.  Bedford House is now the site of a CWGC cemetery 
  226.  L/Cpl Joshua Benjamin Robson (4/1803) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. (Grint, 2006) 
  227.  V Corps Cdr (Lt Gen. H. Fanshawe) placed the 76th Bde, 3rd Divn (1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt, 8th King’s Own) an additional RFA Bde and 172nd Tunnelling Coy under 17th Divn command for the attack 
  228. 52nd Bde was part of the 17th Divn
  229.  Pte Thirlwell Storey (4/513) (b. Haltwhistle) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  230. Wilfred Marshall Henderson (4/869) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  231.  Pte Archibald Bell (4/857) (b. Bellingham) (e. Falstone). He embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 1915. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Cemetery and commemorated at Corsenside St Cuthbert? 
  232.  The 2nd Canadian Divn (4th, 5th and 6th Canadian Bdes) was formed in Britain after the arrival of a number of Canadian units 
  233. Armagh Wood - Map 28NE3  - Ref: H.30.a
  234. CSM William Sharp (4/322) (b. Hexham) (e. Prudhoe)
  235. General Sir Douglas Haig – GOC BEF
  236.  Numerous Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) centres and canteens were established in huts and marquees along lines of communication, near casualty clearing stations and in rest camps. They were staffed by male and female volunteers and provided soldiers with shelter, food, drink, free writing paper and envelopes
  237. Mount Sorrel - Map 28NE3 - Ref: I.30.a b c d.
  238. Square Wood - Map 28NE3  Ref: I.29.b.
  239. The 16th Canadian (Scottish) Battalion was part of the 3rd Bde of the 1st Canadian Divn
  240. Canada Huts - Ouderdom - Poperinghe Map: 10-28NW3-3A - Ref: G.30.c.2.6.
  241. Locre - Kemmel Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.23.c.4.4
  242. Westoutre - Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.9.c
  243. Byron Farm - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.a.3.4
  244.  Bois Confluent -  Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.7.b.5.9 
  245. Streets and Alleys were the names typically applied to communication trenches
  246.  The Hospice - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.19.a.8.8
  247.  Hollandscheschuur  Farm Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.b
  248.  York House Farm - Map 28.SW.2 Ref: 16.c.9.3
  249. Drummer Thomas William Cathrae (4/1490) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery in Belgium. (Grint, 2006)
  250. Pte James Hedley (4/677) was wounded during the attack on St Julien. After regaining fitness with the 3/4th NF he was drafted back to ‘B’ Coy 1/4th NF sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery, Belgium
  251. Pte David Salkeld (4/1917) was drafted from the 3/4th NF, sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  252. St George was the patron saint of the Northumberland Fusiliers
  253. The 13th (Service) King’s Liverpool Regt joined 9th Bde (3rd Divn) on the 4th of April 1916 
  254. The specialists were the machine gunners, bombers and signallers etc
  255.  It was mandatory for British troops to be inoculated to protect against Typhoid (not to be confused with Typhus) and Cholera infection.   The bacterium behind both diseases were transmitted through the faecal-oral route so could quickly and easily spread in the trenches where there was mass concentration of troops exposed to poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene.  Water supplies were not strictly controlled. [zotpress items="BG35N3GM" style="harvard1"]
  256.  Quarantine is likely to have been imposed to limit the spread of Measles (Rubeola) or possibly Meningitis. It would be another 50 years before a Measles vaccine was developed, so quarantine was the only effective way to limit its spread. The symptoms of measles were similar to a cold, but were coupled with sensitivity to light, high temperature, lack of energy, aches and pains, poor appetite, a rash and cough. It rarely killed, but there were common complications that could incapacitate its victims, particularly soldiers whose health, living standards and nutrition were probably already seriously tested
  257. The 1st Battalion NF was part of the 9th Bde (3rd Divn)
  258. CSM J.W. Smith (4/32) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry on many occasions. He has invariably exhibited the greatest bravery and coolness under fire, always volunteering to undertake any hazardous work and setting a splendid example of devotion to duty to all ranks with him. (London Gazette, 1916)
  259.  John Edward Mogerly (4/920) Citation – For conspicuous gallantry and devotion; he volunteered to take charge of four SAA carts, which he brought safely in and unloaded under heavy fire. He was subsequently wounded in the head, but refused to go into hospital, and showed great coolness (London Gazette, 1916) 
  260.  Bandsman J. Forster (4/328) - Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded over long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance (London Gazette, 1916) [note] and Cameron [note] Cameron (4/329) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30 pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance. (London Gazette, 1916). 
  261. Machine gun fire
  262. Siege Farm was northeast of Kemmel, approx one mile behind the lines - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.16.c.3.9
  263. RE Farm was northwest of Kemmel - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.15.c.1.5
  264. Trench L1 - Kemmel Map : 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.18.c.4.8
  265.  Trench L2 - Map Ref: N.18.a.5.1 
  266.  Trench L3 - Map Ref: N.18.c.4.8 
  267. Trench L4 - Map Ref: N.18.a.8.4
  268. .

    The support trenches consisted mainly of breastworks and were very close to the front line. K2 Support stood alone, but could be reached in daylight. L1 Support, L6 and L7R were linked whereas L7L was isolated and could only be reached by night. A surreal aspect of the sector was the fact that farms and houses close up behind the front line were still occupied by the local inhabitants, few farms behind Battalion HQ had been seriously damaged and the land in front of the 18-pounder Battery positions was still being ploughed.

    2nd Lt’s Wilson and Reeve [note] 2nd Lt Wilson and F.H.E Reeve

  269. Pte Joseph Bell (4/2129) ‘D’ Coy was buried in Sanctuary Wood cemetery and is commemorated on the Mickley War Memorial. He left a wife and four children
  270.  The Stokes Mortar was designed in 1914 by English engineer, Sir Wilfred Scott-Stokes. Mortars were designed to ‘lob’ high explosive shells on a high trajectory into enemy trenches. The advantage of the Stokes was that it was relatively small, simple and light for infantrymen to operate. It consisted of a 3’’ diameter tube with a striker at the bottom. Bombs, fitted with firing cartridges at the base, were dropped into the tube and the cartridge fired when it hit the striker 
  271. The Petit Bois (small wood) to the rear and left of the German line, in which trench mortar batteries and guns of all sizes were housed
  272.  2nd Lt Frank Priestman Lees enlisted in the 16th NF at the outbreak of war, but was commissioned and transferred to the 4th NF in April 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery (Grint, 2006)
  273. L/Cpl Robert Watson (4/1212) ‘D’ Coy was previously wounded on the 31 Aug 1915. Robert is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  274.  La Clytte - Kemmel Map: Ref: N.7.c.9.8 
  275. 2nd Lt  Henry Roleson Tully -
  276.  2nd Lt James Hope-Wallace - 
  277. 2nd Lt H.W. Rennison -
  278. The base – This draft is believed to have consisted of men who had enlisted and trained with the Norfolk Regt
  279. 6th Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow) battalion formed at Yorkshill Street in Glasgow. The battalion was in Egypt at this time, so it seems likely the officers were diverted on initial posting , after home or sick leave
  280.  Bulford Camp - Bailluel Map: 28SW3-2B – Ref: T.26.a.5.9
  281. Cooker’s Farm - Ploegsteert Map 28SW4 – Ref: - N.35.c.4.8
  282. Daylight Corner - Bailleul Map: 28SW3-2B - Ref: N.33.c.9.7
  283. Sgt Charlton served with the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC)
  284.  Pte Charles Grant (4/1429) (b. Mickley) (e. Hexham). He is buried in Bailleul Communal Cemetery Extension, France
  285. Pte John Robert Sanderson (4/3615) was born and enlisted in Hull. He is buried at St Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery
  286. 200mm trench mortar
  287. The 10th (Service) Royal Warwickshire Regt and 8th (Service) North Staffordshire Regt (57th Bde, 19th (Western) Divn)
  288. Badajos Huts – Location unknown at present. May have been renamed on 1918 map
  289. Pioneer battalions were formed from late 1914 onwards, or converted from existing infantry battalions, to carry out digging and construction work
  290.  Railway dugouts were in the Ypres-Comines railway line embankment. The area was also called Transport Farm, probably because it was the closest transport wagons would venture to the front line in the Hill 60 sector.  Now the site of a CWGC cemetery – Map Ref: 
  291. Bedford House  - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.26.a.9.4
  292.  Blauwe Poort Farm originally had a moat around three sides of the farm buildings – Zillebeke Map 10-28NW45A - Ref: I.26.b.6.4
  293. Canada Huts was a hutted military encampment located near Dickebusch at M.17.c. The camp appears to have been renamed at some point
  294. The Dump - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.29.c.2.4
  295.  Café Belge - Ypres Map 28NW4 – Ref: H.29.b.8.4 
  296.  The Ravine - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.34.b
  297. Zwarteleen - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.29.d.7.8
  298. The origin of the term 'strafe' was the German ‘strafen’ (to punish) and was commonly applied to machine gun fire, but also used to describe a bombardment
  299.  Gum boots were rubber boots or waders and ideal for use in the waterlogged trenches 
  300.  Lt Robert Allen - Database shows this man killed, but also POW in 1918? 
  301. Lt Charles Arthur Collingwood was drafted from the 15th NF on 19 August 1915 
  302.  Cpl Joseph Yeomans (4/1613) ‘C’ Coy (b. Haltwhistle) was wounded on 26 Apr 15 and was reported in the Evening Chronicle on 3 May 15. Yeomans is buried in Railway Dugouts Cemetery near Ypres
  303. Pte Edward Riddel Hedley (4/866) (‘B’ Coy) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. Railway Dugouts Burial Ground, Ypres, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  304. Pte Richard Rigby (4/2513) (e. Newburn) and embarked for France on 19 Apr 15 
  305.  Pte William Watt (4/2716) ‘A’ Coy was taken on 3/4th NF strength on 11th Jun 15 and drafted to France on 3rd Sep 15. Both are buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  306.  Pte Alexander Ure (4/2825) ‘B’ Coy was one of five brothers. He was drafted from the 3/4th NF at some stage during Sep 1915 
  307.  2nd Lt Stephenson (‘A’ Coy)
  308.  Private Charles Gordon Sharp had previously served with the Inns of Court OTC, but was commissioned into the NF on 27th March, 1915. (London Gazette, p. 3690). Charles was born in Bywell and was the son of steamship owner Robert Sharp 
  309. Hexham man Pte Adolphus Forster (4/1484) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. He was wounded during the early fighting but returned to serve with the battalion. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  310. Scottish Lines - Poperinghe Map: 28NW3-3a – Ref: G.23.b.3.8
  311. The 24th Divn was comprised of the 17th, 72nd and 73rd Infantry Bdes
  312. The 3rd Battalion of the Rifles was in the 17th Rifle Bde (24th Divn)
  313. Pte James Grieve (4/2796) joined the 4th NF as part of a draft from the 3/4th NF on 3rd Sep 1915. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  314. Pte Edward Carr (4/2524) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  315. Cpl Robert Towler (4/372) enlisted in ‘D’ Prudhoe Coy and embarked for France with the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  316. The 17th Divn was comprised of the 50th, 51st and 52nd Infantry Bdes
  317. The Bluff was the name given to a spoilheap created when the Ypres- Comines canal was cut through the Messines ridge. Zillebeke Map - Reference: I.34.c.3.2  
  318.  Q.6.a and Other Places – Recollections of 1916, 1917, 1918. [zotpressInText item="{Z5UXG9XQ,35}"]
  319. The 76th Bde (3rd Divn) was comprised the 1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt and the 8th King’s Own.
  320.  Lt William Turner
  321.  Bedford House is now the site of a CWGC cemetery 
  322.  L/Cpl Joshua Benjamin Robson (4/1803) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. (Grint, 2006) 
  323.  V Corps Cdr (Lt Gen. H. Fanshawe) placed the 76th Bde, 3rd Divn (1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt, 8th King’s Own) an additional RFA Bde and 172nd Tunnelling Coy under 17th Divn command for the attack 
  324. 52nd Bde was part of the 17th Divn
  325.  Pte Thirlwell Storey (4/513) (b. Haltwhistle) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  326. Wilfred Marshall Henderson (4/869) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  327.  Pte Archibald Bell (4/857) (b. Bellingham) (e. Falstone). He embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 1915. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Cemetery and commemorated at Corsenside St Cuthbert? 
  328.  The 2nd Canadian Divn (4th, 5th and 6th Canadian Bdes) was formed in Britain after the arrival of a number of Canadian units 
  329. Armagh Wood - Map 28NE3  - Ref: H.30.a
  330. CSM William Sharp (4/322) (b. Hexham) (e. Prudhoe)
  331. General Sir Douglas Haig – GOC BEF
  332.  Numerous Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) centres and canteens were established in huts and marquees along lines of communication, near casualty clearing stations and in rest camps. They were staffed by male and female volunteers and provided soldiers with shelter, food, drink, free writing paper and envelopes
  333. Mount Sorrel - Map 28NE3 - Ref: I.30.a b c d.
  334. Square Wood - Map 28NE3  Ref: I.29.b.
  335. The 16th Canadian (Scottish) Battalion was part of the 3rd Bde of the 1st Canadian Divn
  336. Canada Huts - Ouderdom - Poperinghe Map: 10-28NW3-3A - Ref: G.30.c.2.6.
  337. Locre - Kemmel Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.23.c.4.4
  338. Westoutre - Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.9.c
  339. Byron Farm - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.a.3.4
  340.  Bois Confluent -  Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.7.b.5.9 
  341. Streets and Alleys were the names typically applied to communication trenches
  342.  The Hospice - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.19.a.8.8
  343.  Hollandscheschuur  Farm Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.b
  344.  York House Farm - Map 28.SW.2 Ref: 16.c.9.3
  345. Drummer Thomas William Cathrae (4/1490) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery in Belgium. (Grint, 2006)
  346. Pte James Hedley (4/677) was wounded during the attack on St Julien. After regaining fitness with the 3/4th NF he was drafted back to ‘B’ Coy 1/4th NF sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery, Belgium
  347. Pte David Salkeld (4/1917) was drafted from the 3/4th NF, sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  348. St George was the patron saint of the Northumberland Fusiliers
  349. The 13th (Service) King’s Liverpool Regt joined 9th Bde (3rd Divn) on the 4th of April 1916 
  350. The specialists were the machine gunners, bombers and signallers etc
  351.  It was mandatory for British troops to be inoculated to protect against Typhoid (not to be confused with Typhus) and Cholera infection.   The bacterium behind both diseases were transmitted through the faecal-oral route so could quickly and easily spread in the trenches where there was mass concentration of troops exposed to poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene.  Water supplies were not strictly controlled. [zotpress items="BG35N3GM" style="harvard1"]
  352.  Quarantine is likely to have been imposed to limit the spread of Measles (Rubeola) or possibly Meningitis. It would be another 50 years before a Measles vaccine was developed, so quarantine was the only effective way to limit its spread. The symptoms of measles were similar to a cold, but were coupled with sensitivity to light, high temperature, lack of energy, aches and pains, poor appetite, a rash and cough. It rarely killed, but there were common complications that could incapacitate its victims, particularly soldiers whose health, living standards and nutrition were probably already seriously tested
  353. The 1st Battalion NF was part of the 9th Bde (3rd Divn)
  354. CSM J.W. Smith (4/32) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry on many occasions. He has invariably exhibited the greatest bravery and coolness under fire, always volunteering to undertake any hazardous work and setting a splendid example of devotion to duty to all ranks with him. (London Gazette, 1916)
  355.  John Edward Mogerly (4/920) Citation – For conspicuous gallantry and devotion; he volunteered to take charge of four SAA carts, which he brought safely in and unloaded under heavy fire. He was subsequently wounded in the head, but refused to go into hospital, and showed great coolness (London Gazette, 1916) 
  356.  Bandsman J. Forster (4/328) - Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded over long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance (London Gazette, 1916) [note] and Cameron [note] Cameron (4/329) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30 pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance. (London Gazette, 1916). 
  357. Machine gun fire
  358. Siege Farm was northeast of Kemmel, approx one mile behind the lines - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.16.c.3.9
  359. RE Farm was northwest of Kemmel - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.15.c.1.5
  360. Trench L1 - Kemmel Map : 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.18.c.4.8
  361.  Trench L2 - Map Ref: N.18.a.5.1 
  362.  Trench L3 - Map Ref: N.18.c.4.8 
  363. Trench L4 - Map Ref: N.18.a.8.4
  364. .

    The support trenches consisted mainly of breastworks and were very close to the front line. K2 Support stood alone, but could be reached in daylight. L1 Support, L6 and L7R were linked whereas L7L was isolated and could only be reached by night. A surreal aspect of the sector was the fact that farms and houses close up behind the front line were still occupied by the local inhabitants, few farms behind Battalion HQ had been seriously damaged and the land in front of the 18-pounder Battery positions was still being ploughed.

    2nd Lt’s Wilson and Reeve [note] 2nd Lt Wilson and F.H.E Reeve

  365. Pte Joseph Bell (4/2129) ‘D’ Coy was buried in Sanctuary Wood cemetery and is commemorated on the Mickley War Memorial. He left a wife and four children
  366.  The Stokes Mortar was designed in 1914 by English engineer, Sir Wilfred Scott-Stokes. Mortars were designed to ‘lob’ high explosive shells on a high trajectory into enemy trenches. The advantage of the Stokes was that it was relatively small, simple and light for infantrymen to operate. It consisted of a 3’’ diameter tube with a striker at the bottom. Bombs, fitted with firing cartridges at the base, were dropped into the tube and the cartridge fired when it hit the striker 
  367. The Petit Bois (small wood) to the rear and left of the German line, in which trench mortar batteries and guns of all sizes were housed
  368.  2nd Lt Frank Priestman Lees enlisted in the 16th NF at the outbreak of war, but was commissioned and transferred to the 4th NF in April 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery (Grint, 2006)
  369. L/Cpl Robert Watson (4/1212) ‘D’ Coy was previously wounded on the 31 Aug 1915. Robert is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  370.  La Clytte - Kemmel Map: Ref: N.7.c.9.8 
  371. 2nd Lt  Henry Roleson Tully -
  372.  2nd Lt James Hope-Wallace - 
  373. 2nd Lt H.W. Rennison -
  374. The base – This draft is believed to have consisted of men who had enlisted and trained with the Norfolk Regt
  375. 6th Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow) battalion formed at Yorkshill Street in Glasgow. The battalion was in Egypt at this time, so it seems likely the officers were diverted on initial posting , after home or sick leave
  376.  Bulford Camp - Bailluel Map: 28SW3-2B – Ref: T.26.a.5.9
  377. Cooker’s Farm - Ploegsteert Map 28SW4 – Ref: - N.35.c.4.8
  378. Daylight Corner - Bailleul Map: 28SW3-2B - Ref: N.33.c.9.7
  379. Sgt Charlton served with the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC)
  380.  Pte Charles Grant (4/1429) (b. Mickley) (e. Hexham). He is buried in Bailleul Communal Cemetery Extension, France
  381. Pte John Robert Sanderson (4/3615) was born and enlisted in Hull. He is buried at St Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery
  382. 200mm trench mortar
  383. The 10th (Service) Royal Warwickshire Regt and 8th (Service) North Staffordshire Regt (57th Bde, 19th (Western) Divn)
  384. Badajos Huts – Location unknown at present. May have been renamed on 1918 map
  385. Pioneer battalions were formed from late 1914 onwards, or converted from existing infantry battalions, to carry out digging and construction work
  386.  Railway dugouts were in the Ypres-Comines railway line embankment. The area was also called Transport Farm, probably because it was the closest transport wagons would venture to the front line in the Hill 60 sector.  Now the site of a CWGC cemetery – Map Ref: 
  387. Bedford House  - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.26.a.9.4
  388.  Blauwe Poort Farm originally had a moat around three sides of the farm buildings – Zillebeke Map 10-28NW45A - Ref: I.26.b.6.4
  389. Canada Huts was a hutted military encampment located near Dickebusch at M.17.c. The camp appears to have been renamed at some point
  390. The Dump - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.29.c.2.4
  391.  Café Belge - Ypres Map 28NW4 – Ref: H.29.b.8.4 
  392.  The Ravine - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.34.b
  393. Zwarteleen - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.29.d.7.8
  394. The origin of the term 'strafe' was the German ‘strafen’ (to punish) and was commonly applied to machine gun fire, but also used to describe a bombardment
  395.  Gum boots were rubber boots or waders and ideal for use in the waterlogged trenches 
  396.  Lt Robert Allen - Database shows this man killed, but also POW in 1918? 
  397. Lt Charles Arthur Collingwood was drafted from the 15th NF on 19 August 1915 
  398.  Cpl Joseph Yeomans (4/1613) ‘C’ Coy (b. Haltwhistle) was wounded on 26 Apr 15 and was reported in the Evening Chronicle on 3 May 15. Yeomans is buried in Railway Dugouts Cemetery near Ypres
  399. Pte Edward Riddel Hedley (4/866) (‘B’ Coy) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. Railway Dugouts Burial Ground, Ypres, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  400. Pte Richard Rigby (4/2513) (e. Newburn) and embarked for France on 19 Apr 15 
  401.  Pte William Watt (4/2716) ‘A’ Coy was taken on 3/4th NF strength on 11th Jun 15 and drafted to France on 3rd Sep 15. Both are buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  402.  Pte Alexander Ure (4/2825) ‘B’ Coy was one of five brothers. He was drafted from the 3/4th NF at some stage during Sep 1915 
  403.  2nd Lt Stephenson (‘A’ Coy)
  404.  Private Charles Gordon Sharp had previously served with the Inns of Court OTC, but was commissioned into the NF on 27th March, 1915. (London Gazette, p. 3690). Charles was born in Bywell and was the son of steamship owner Robert Sharp 
  405. Hexham man Pte Adolphus Forster (4/1484) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. He was wounded during the early fighting but returned to serve with the battalion. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  406. Scottish Lines - Poperinghe Map: 28NW3-3a – Ref: G.23.b.3.8
  407. The 24th Divn was comprised of the 17th, 72nd and 73rd Infantry Bdes
  408. The 3rd Battalion of the Rifles was in the 17th Rifle Bde (24th Divn)
  409. Pte James Grieve (4/2796) joined the 4th NF as part of a draft from the 3/4th NF on 3rd Sep 1915. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  410. Pte Edward Carr (4/2524) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  411. Cpl Robert Towler (4/372) enlisted in ‘D’ Prudhoe Coy and embarked for France with the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  412. The 17th Divn was comprised of the 50th, 51st and 52nd Infantry Bdes
  413. The Bluff was the name given to a spoilheap created when the Ypres- Comines canal was cut through the Messines ridge. Zillebeke Map - Reference: I.34.c.3.2  
  414.  Q.6.a and Other Places – Recollections of 1916, 1917, 1918. [zotpressInText item="{Z5UXG9XQ,35}"]
  415. The 76th Bde (3rd Divn) was comprised the 1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt and the 8th King’s Own.
  416.  Lt William Turner
  417.  Bedford House is now the site of a CWGC cemetery 
  418.  L/Cpl Joshua Benjamin Robson (4/1803) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. (Grint, 2006) 
  419.  V Corps Cdr (Lt Gen. H. Fanshawe) placed the 76th Bde, 3rd Divn (1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt, 8th King’s Own) an additional RFA Bde and 172nd Tunnelling Coy under 17th Divn command for the attack 
  420. 52nd Bde was part of the 17th Divn
  421.  Pte Thirlwell Storey (4/513) (b. Haltwhistle) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  422. Wilfred Marshall Henderson (4/869) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  423.  Pte Archibald Bell (4/857) (b. Bellingham) (e. Falstone). He embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 1915. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Cemetery and commemorated at Corsenside St Cuthbert? 
  424.  The 2nd Canadian Divn (4th, 5th and 6th Canadian Bdes) was formed in Britain after the arrival of a number of Canadian units 
  425. Armagh Wood - Map 28NE3  - Ref: H.30.a
  426. CSM William Sharp (4/322) (b. Hexham) (e. Prudhoe)
  427. General Sir Douglas Haig – GOC BEF
  428.  Numerous Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) centres and canteens were established in huts and marquees along lines of communication, near casualty clearing stations and in rest camps. They were staffed by male and female volunteers and provided soldiers with shelter, food, drink, free writing paper and envelopes
  429. Mount Sorrel - Map 28NE3 - Ref: I.30.a b c d.
  430. Square Wood - Map 28NE3  Ref: I.29.b.
  431. The 16th Canadian (Scottish) Battalion was part of the 3rd Bde of the 1st Canadian Divn
  432. Canada Huts - Ouderdom - Poperinghe Map: 10-28NW3-3A - Ref: G.30.c.2.6.
  433. Locre - Kemmel Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.23.c.4.4
  434. Westoutre - Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.9.c
  435. Byron Farm - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.a.3.4
  436.  Bois Confluent -  Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.7.b.5.9 
  437. Streets and Alleys were the names typically applied to communication trenches
  438.  The Hospice - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.19.a.8.8
  439.  Hollandscheschuur  Farm Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.b
  440.  York House Farm - Map 28.SW.2 Ref: 16.c.9.3
  441. Drummer Thomas William Cathrae (4/1490) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery in Belgium. (Grint, 2006)
  442. Pte James Hedley (4/677) was wounded during the attack on St Julien. After regaining fitness with the 3/4th NF he was drafted back to ‘B’ Coy 1/4th NF sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery, Belgium
  443. Pte David Salkeld (4/1917) was drafted from the 3/4th NF, sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  444. St George was the patron saint of the Northumberland Fusiliers
  445. The 13th (Service) King’s Liverpool Regt joined 9th Bde (3rd Divn) on the 4th of April 1916 
  446. The specialists were the machine gunners, bombers and signallers etc
  447.  It was mandatory for British troops to be inoculated to protect against Typhoid (not to be confused with Typhus) and Cholera infection.   The bacterium behind both diseases were transmitted through the faecal-oral route so could quickly and easily spread in the trenches where there was mass concentration of troops exposed to poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene.  Water supplies were not strictly controlled. [zotpress items="BG35N3GM" style="harvard1"]
  448.  Quarantine is likely to have been imposed to limit the spread of Measles (Rubeola) or possibly Meningitis. It would be another 50 years before a Measles vaccine was developed, so quarantine was the only effective way to limit its spread. The symptoms of measles were similar to a cold, but were coupled with sensitivity to light, high temperature, lack of energy, aches and pains, poor appetite, a rash and cough. It rarely killed, but there were common complications that could incapacitate its victims, particularly soldiers whose health, living standards and nutrition were probably already seriously tested
  449. The 1st Battalion NF was part of the 9th Bde (3rd Divn)
  450. CSM J.W. Smith (4/32) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry on many occasions. He has invariably exhibited the greatest bravery and coolness under fire, always volunteering to undertake any hazardous work and setting a splendid example of devotion to duty to all ranks with him. (London Gazette, 1916)
  451.  John Edward Mogerly (4/920) Citation – For conspicuous gallantry and devotion; he volunteered to take charge of four SAA carts, which he brought safely in and unloaded under heavy fire. He was subsequently wounded in the head, but refused to go into hospital, and showed great coolness (London Gazette, 1916) 
  452.  Bandsman J. Forster (4/328) - Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded over long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance (London Gazette, 1916) [note] and Cameron [note] Cameron (4/329) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30 pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance. (London Gazette, 1916). 
  453. Machine gun fire
  454. Siege Farm was northeast of Kemmel, approx one mile behind the lines - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.16.c.3.9
  455. RE Farm was northwest of Kemmel - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.15.c.1.5
  456. Trench L1 - Kemmel Map : 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.18.c.4.8
  457.  Trench L2 - Map Ref: N.18.a.5.1 
  458.  Trench L3 - Map Ref: N.18.c.4.8 
  459. Trench L4 - Map Ref: N.18.a.8.4
  460. .

    The support trenches consisted mainly of breastworks and were very close to the front line. K2 Support stood alone, but could be reached in daylight. L1 Support, L6 and L7R were linked whereas L7L was isolated and could only be reached by night. A surreal aspect of the sector was the fact that farms and houses close up behind the front line were still occupied by the local inhabitants, few farms behind Battalion HQ had been seriously damaged and the land in front of the 18-pounder Battery positions was still being ploughed.

    2nd Lt’s Wilson and Reeve [note] 2nd Lt Wilson and F.H.E Reeve

  461. Pte Joseph Bell (4/2129) ‘D’ Coy was buried in Sanctuary Wood cemetery and is commemorated on the Mickley War Memorial. He left a wife and four children
  462.  The Stokes Mortar was designed in 1914 by English engineer, Sir Wilfred Scott-Stokes. Mortars were designed to ‘lob’ high explosive shells on a high trajectory into enemy trenches. The advantage of the Stokes was that it was relatively small, simple and light for infantrymen to operate. It consisted of a 3’’ diameter tube with a striker at the bottom. Bombs, fitted with firing cartridges at the base, were dropped into the tube and the cartridge fired when it hit the striker 
  463. The Petit Bois (small wood) to the rear and left of the German line, in which trench mortar batteries and guns of all sizes were housed
  464.  2nd Lt Frank Priestman Lees enlisted in the 16th NF at the outbreak of war, but was commissioned and transferred to the 4th NF in April 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery (Grint, 2006)
  465. L/Cpl Robert Watson (4/1212) ‘D’ Coy was previously wounded on the 31 Aug 1915. Robert is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  466.  La Clytte - Kemmel Map: Ref: N.7.c.9.8 
  467. 2nd Lt  Henry Roleson Tully -
  468.  2nd Lt James Hope-Wallace - 
  469. 2nd Lt H.W. Rennison -
  470. The base – This draft is believed to have consisted of men who had enlisted and trained with the Norfolk Regt
  471. 6th Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow) battalion formed at Yorkshill Street in Glasgow. The battalion was in Egypt at this time, so it seems likely the officers were diverted on initial posting , after home or sick leave
  472.  Bulford Camp - Bailluel Map: 28SW3-2B – Ref: T.26.a.5.9
  473. Cooker’s Farm - Ploegsteert Map 28SW4 – Ref: - N.35.c.4.8
  474. Daylight Corner - Bailleul Map: 28SW3-2B - Ref: N.33.c.9.7
  475. Sgt Charlton served with the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC)
  476.  Pte Charles Grant (4/1429) (b. Mickley) (e. Hexham). He is buried in Bailleul Communal Cemetery Extension, France
  477. Pte John Robert Sanderson (4/3615) was born and enlisted in Hull. He is buried at St Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery
  478. 200mm trench mortar
  479. The 10th (Service) Royal Warwickshire Regt and 8th (Service) North Staffordshire Regt (57th Bde, 19th (Western) Divn)
  480. Badajos Huts – Location unknown at present. May have been renamed on 1918 map
  481. Pioneer battalions were formed from late 1914 onwards, or converted from existing infantry battalions, to carry out digging and construction work
  482.  Railway dugouts were in the Ypres-Comines railway line embankment. The area was also called Transport Farm, probably because it was the closest transport wagons would venture to the front line in the Hill 60 sector.  Now the site of a CWGC cemetery – Map Ref: 
  483. Bedford House  - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.26.a.9.4
  484.  Blauwe Poort Farm originally had a moat around three sides of the farm buildings – Zillebeke Map 10-28NW45A - Ref: I.26.b.6.4
  485. Canada Huts was a hutted military encampment located near Dickebusch at M.17.c. The camp appears to have been renamed at some point
  486. The Dump - Zillebeke Map: 10-28NW4-5A – Ref: I.29.c.2.4
  487.  Café Belge - Ypres Map 28NW4 – Ref: H.29.b.8.4 
  488.  The Ravine - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.34.b
  489. Zwarteleen - Zillebeke Map - Ref: 1.29.d.7.8
  490. The origin of the term 'strafe' was the German ‘strafen’ (to punish) and was commonly applied to machine gun fire, but also used to describe a bombardment
  491.  Gum boots were rubber boots or waders and ideal for use in the waterlogged trenches 
  492.  Lt Robert Allen - Database shows this man killed, but also POW in 1918? 
  493. Lt Charles Arthur Collingwood was drafted from the 15th NF on 19 August 1915 
  494.  Cpl Joseph Yeomans (4/1613) ‘C’ Coy (b. Haltwhistle) was wounded on 26 Apr 15 and was reported in the Evening Chronicle on 3 May 15. Yeomans is buried in Railway Dugouts Cemetery near Ypres
  495. Pte Edward Riddel Hedley (4/866) (‘B’ Coy) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. Railway Dugouts Burial Ground, Ypres, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  496. Pte Richard Rigby (4/2513) (e. Newburn) and embarked for France on 19 Apr 15 
  497.  Pte William Watt (4/2716) ‘A’ Coy was taken on 3/4th NF strength on 11th Jun 15 and drafted to France on 3rd Sep 15. Both are buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  498.  Pte Alexander Ure (4/2825) ‘B’ Coy was one of five brothers. He was drafted from the 3/4th NF at some stage during Sep 1915 
  499.  2nd Lt Stephenson (‘A’ Coy)
  500.  Private Charles Gordon Sharp had previously served with the Inns of Court OTC, but was commissioned into the NF on 27th March, 1915. (London Gazette, p. 3690). Charles was born in Bywell and was the son of steamship owner Robert Sharp 
  501. Hexham man Pte Adolphus Forster (4/1484) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. He was wounded during the early fighting but returned to serve with the battalion. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Burial Ground near Ypres 
  502. Scottish Lines - Poperinghe Map: 28NW3-3a – Ref: G.23.b.3.8
  503. The 24th Divn was comprised of the 17th, 72nd and 73rd Infantry Bdes
  504. The 3rd Battalion of the Rifles was in the 17th Rifle Bde (24th Divn)
  505. Pte James Grieve (4/2796) joined the 4th NF as part of a draft from the 3/4th NF on 3rd Sep 1915. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  506. Pte Edward Carr (4/2524) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  507. Cpl Robert Towler (4/372) enlisted in ‘D’ Prudhoe Coy and embarked for France with the battalion on 20 Apr 15. Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres
  508. The 17th Divn was comprised of the 50th, 51st and 52nd Infantry Bdes
  509. The Bluff was the name given to a spoilheap created when the Ypres- Comines canal was cut through the Messines ridge. Zillebeke Map - Reference: I.34.c.3.2  
  510.  Q.6.a and Other Places – Recollections of 1916, 1917, 1918. [zotpressInText item="{Z5UXG9XQ,35}"]
  511. The 76th Bde (3rd Divn) was comprised the 1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt and the 8th King’s Own.
  512.  Lt William Turner
  513.  Bedford House is now the site of a CWGC cemetery 
  514.  L/Cpl Joshua Benjamin Robson (4/1803) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15. (Grint, 2006) 
  515.  V Corps Cdr (Lt Gen. H. Fanshawe) placed the 76th Bde, 3rd Divn (1st Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Suffolk Regt, 8th King’s Own) an additional RFA Bde and 172nd Tunnelling Coy under 17th Divn command for the attack 
  516. 52nd Bde was part of the 17th Divn
  517.  Pte Thirlwell Storey (4/513) (b. Haltwhistle) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  518. Wilfred Marshall Henderson (4/869) embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 15 
  519.  Pte Archibald Bell (4/857) (b. Bellingham) (e. Falstone). He embarked for France with the rest of the battalion on 20 Apr 1915. He is buried at Railway Dugouts Cemetery and commemorated at Corsenside St Cuthbert? 
  520.  The 2nd Canadian Divn (4th, 5th and 6th Canadian Bdes) was formed in Britain after the arrival of a number of Canadian units 
  521. Armagh Wood - Map 28NE3  - Ref: H.30.a
  522. CSM William Sharp (4/322) (b. Hexham) (e. Prudhoe)
  523. General Sir Douglas Haig – GOC BEF
  524.  Numerous Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) centres and canteens were established in huts and marquees along lines of communication, near casualty clearing stations and in rest camps. They were staffed by male and female volunteers and provided soldiers with shelter, food, drink, free writing paper and envelopes
  525. Mount Sorrel - Map 28NE3 - Ref: I.30.a b c d.
  526. Square Wood - Map 28NE3  Ref: I.29.b.
  527. The 16th Canadian (Scottish) Battalion was part of the 3rd Bde of the 1st Canadian Divn
  528. Canada Huts - Ouderdom - Poperinghe Map: 10-28NW3-3A - Ref: G.30.c.2.6.
  529. Locre - Kemmel Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.23.c.4.4
  530. Westoutre - Map 28SW1 - Ref: M.9.c
  531. Byron Farm - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.a.3.4
  532.  Bois Confluent -  Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.7.b.5.9 
  533. Streets and Alleys were the names typically applied to communication trenches
  534.  The Hospice - Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: O.19.a.8.8
  535.  Hollandscheschuur  Farm Wyteshaete Map: 10-28SW2-5A - Ref: N.18.b
  536.  York House Farm - Map 28.SW.2 Ref: 16.c.9.3
  537. Drummer Thomas William Cathrae (4/1490) (b. Hexham) (e. Hexham) embarked for France on 20 Apr 15. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery in Belgium. (Grint, 2006)
  538. Pte James Hedley (4/677) was wounded during the attack on St Julien. After regaining fitness with the 3/4th NF he was drafted back to ‘B’ Coy 1/4th NF sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery, Belgium
  539. Pte David Salkeld (4/1917) was drafted from the 3/4th NF, sometime after Sep 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  540. St George was the patron saint of the Northumberland Fusiliers
  541. The 13th (Service) King’s Liverpool Regt joined 9th Bde (3rd Divn) on the 4th of April 1916 
  542. The specialists were the machine gunners, bombers and signallers etc
  543.  It was mandatory for British troops to be inoculated to protect against Typhoid (not to be confused with Typhus) and Cholera infection.   The bacterium behind both diseases were transmitted through the faecal-oral route so could quickly and easily spread in the trenches where there was mass concentration of troops exposed to poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene.  Water supplies were not strictly controlled. [zotpress items="BG35N3GM" style="harvard1"]
  544.  Quarantine is likely to have been imposed to limit the spread of Measles (Rubeola) or possibly Meningitis. It would be another 50 years before a Measles vaccine was developed, so quarantine was the only effective way to limit its spread. The symptoms of measles were similar to a cold, but were coupled with sensitivity to light, high temperature, lack of energy, aches and pains, poor appetite, a rash and cough. It rarely killed, but there were common complications that could incapacitate its victims, particularly soldiers whose health, living standards and nutrition were probably already seriously tested
  545. The 1st Battalion NF was part of the 9th Bde (3rd Divn)
  546. CSM J.W. Smith (4/32) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry on many occasions. He has invariably exhibited the greatest bravery and coolness under fire, always volunteering to undertake any hazardous work and setting a splendid example of devotion to duty to all ranks with him. (London Gazette, 1916)
  547.  John Edward Mogerly (4/920) Citation – For conspicuous gallantry and devotion; he volunteered to take charge of four SAA carts, which he brought safely in and unloaded under heavy fire. He was subsequently wounded in the head, but refused to go into hospital, and showed great coolness (London Gazette, 1916) 
  548.  Bandsman J. Forster (4/328) - Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded over long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance (London Gazette, 1916) [note] and Cameron [note] Cameron (4/329) Citation - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion when acting as a stretcher bearer. On one occasion he searched for and carried wounded from 2.30 pm till midnight, mainly under heavy fire. On several other occasions he assisted to carry wounded long distances under heavy fire, invariably showing great bravery, coolness and endurance. (London Gazette, 1916). 
  549. Machine gun fire
  550. Siege Farm was northeast of Kemmel, approx one mile behind the lines - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.16.c.3.9
  551. RE Farm was northwest of Kemmel - Kemmel Map: 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.15.c.1.5
  552. Trench L1 - Kemmel Map : 10-28SW1-3B – Ref: N.18.c.4.8
  553.  Trench L2 - Map Ref: N.18.a.5.1 
  554.  Trench L3 - Map Ref: N.18.c.4.8 
  555. Trench L4 - Map Ref: N.18.a.8.4
  556. .

    The support trenches consisted mainly of breastworks and were very close to the front line. K2 Support stood alone, but could be reached in daylight. L1 Support, L6 and L7R were linked whereas L7L was isolated and could only be reached by night. A surreal aspect of the sector was the fact that farms and houses close up behind the front line were still occupied by the local inhabitants, few farms behind Battalion HQ had been seriously damaged and the land in front of the 18-pounder Battery positions was still being ploughed.

    2nd Lt’s Wilson and Reeve [note] 2nd Lt Wilson and F.H.E Reeve

  557. Pte Joseph Bell (4/2129) ‘D’ Coy was buried in Sanctuary Wood cemetery and is commemorated on the Mickley War Memorial. He left a wife and four children
  558.  The Stokes Mortar was designed in 1914 by English engineer, Sir Wilfred Scott-Stokes. Mortars were designed to ‘lob’ high explosive shells on a high trajectory into enemy trenches. The advantage of the Stokes was that it was relatively small, simple and light for infantrymen to operate. It consisted of a 3’’ diameter tube with a striker at the bottom. Bombs, fitted with firing cartridges at the base, were dropped into the tube and the cartridge fired when it hit the striker 
  559. The Petit Bois (small wood) to the rear and left of the German line, in which trench mortar batteries and guns of all sizes were housed
  560.  2nd Lt Frank Priestman Lees enlisted in the 16th NF at the outbreak of war, but was commissioned and transferred to the 4th NF in April 1915. He is buried at La Laiterie Military Cemetery (Grint, 2006)
  561. L/Cpl Robert Watson (4/1212) ‘D’ Coy was previously wounded on the 31 Aug 1915. Robert is buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery
  562.  La Clytte - Kemmel Map: Ref: N.7.c.9.8 
  563. 2nd Lt  Henry Roleson Tully -
  564.  2nd Lt James Hope-Wallace - 
  565. 2nd Lt H.W. Rennison -
  566. The base – This draft is believed to have consisted of men who had enlisted and trained with the Norfolk Regt
  567. 6th Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow) battalion formed at Yorkshill Street in Glasgow. The battalion was in Egypt at this time, so it seems likely the officers were diverted on initial posting , after home or sick leave
  568.  Bulford Camp - Bailluel Map: 28SW3-2B – Ref: T.26.a.5.9
  569. Cooker’s Farm - Ploegsteert Map 28SW4 – Ref: - N.35.c.4.8
  570. Daylight Corner - Bailleul Map: 28SW3-2B - Ref: N.33.c.9.7
  571. Sgt Charlton served with the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC)
  572.  Pte Charles Grant (4/1429) (b. Mickley) (e. Hexham). He is buried in Bailleul Communal Cemetery Extension, France
  573. Pte John Robert Sanderson (4/3615) was born and enlisted in Hull. He is buried at St Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery
  574. 200mm trench mortar
  575. The 10th (Service) Royal Warwickshire Regt and 8th (Service) North Staffordshire Regt (57th Bde, 19th (Western) Divn)
  576. Badajos Huts – Location unknown at present. May have been renamed on 1918 map