Chapter 7 – Passchendaele

Passchendaele - Dec 1917 The 4th NF relocated to La Ronville on December the 2nd , to take advantage of an area considered more suitable for training. Training exercises now focused on the…

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Footnotes

  1.  Battle of Broodseinde 
  2.  The German bunkers at this point were set amongst farm buildings and were later to become the site of Tyne Cot Cemetery 
  3.  Toronto Camp (Brandhoek) – Map: 28NW3-3a -   Ref: G.18.a.3.7
  4. Hamburg Farm was a German strongpoint captured by …..–    Map: 28NE1 –   Ref: D.16.b.3.7 
  5. Until captured by the 44th Bn of the 3rd Australian Divn Seine House was the site of several German outposts and headquarters. Map 28 NE1 – Ref: D.16.d.3.5
  6.  The 72nd Bn Seaforth Highlanders of Canada 
  7. Pte Robert Tweddle (37852) enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  8.  Pte Noah Ellis (204334) was born in West Hall and enlisted in Elswick, Northumberland. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium
  9. Pte Michael White (35757) was born and enlisted in Hull. He served formerly with the West Yorks Regt. He is buried in Potijze Chateau Grounds Cemetery
  10.  L/Cpl Harry Horne (27/341) enlisted in Sunderland and is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  11. Pte Harry Kewley Cubbon (48014) was born in Arbory and enlisted in Douglas, Isle of Man. 08013 T Res AOC. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  12.  near Potijze 
  13. Bellevue Switch Line
  14.  The formation of Tunnelling Coys began in February 1915 in response to a German attack in December 1914, which had opened with the detonation of mines placed in tunnels beneath the British trenches. The men were tasked with digging tunnels to plant mines beneath enemy trenches, detecting and destroying enemy tunnels, digging trenches and saps etc 
  15. Seine -  Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.16.d.2.6 
  16.  Pte James Nesbitt (204608) was born at Seaham Harbour and enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  17.  Expert (Exert) Copse – Map: 28NE1 -   Ref: E.1.b.0.6
  18.  Mules were commonly used by the Bn transport sections to pull the ration limbers and field kitchens, where speed or strength was not so important. By 1916 half a million mules and horses were serving in France and Flanders 
  19.  The dustbin sized and shaped Soyer Stove was invented by the French Chef Alexis Soyer during the Crimean War and was still in use during the Gulf War of 1991 
  20. 60cm gauge light railway
  21. The 171st Tunnelling Coy was originally formed in 1915 from Welsh miners
  22.  Waterfields was an area to the north of Hamburg Farm through which the Ravebeek flowed. Overlapping shell holes no doubt caused the area to flood, hence the name - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.10.d.5.8
  23. 2/5th, 2/6th, 2/7th and 2/8th Manchester Regt, 199th (Manchester) Bde, 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Divn 
  24. Broodseinde - Passchendaele Ridge – 4th NF Sketch map A and Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 - Ref: D.17d.1.9 to D.23.c.7 
  25. The 16th (Newcastle Commercials) NF was disbanded at Elverdinghe on the 7th Feb 1918 
  26. Pte Robert William Nail (365282) (e. Blyth). Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  27.  Sgt Edward Hawkins (4/1008, 200130) (b. Newcastle)(e. Prudhoe). Was drafted from the 3/4th to 1/4th NF on 23 Oct 17. He is buried in Dochy Farm New British Cemetery, Langemark-Poelkappelle 
  28. Immersion Foot
  29. What was the foot powder - Borassic?  Used externally as a dusting powder and in solution as a cleansing and weakly antiseptic lotion
  30. Thames Farm was captured on the 4th of October 1917 and a nearby bunker was used as a Regimental Aid Post – Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 Ref: D.22.b.4.6
  31.  171st Tunnelling Coy Royal Engineers was composed of experienced  South Wales miners recruited from the territorial Bns of the Monmouthshire Regt and were first used on Hill 60 in 1915 www.rrw.org.uk/remember/j_spencer.htm 
  32. Eddy Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,  Ref: E.13.c.2.9
  33.  Borry Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,         Ref: D.25.b
  34. Wizernes is 5 km south west of St Omer 
  35.  The network of light railways from Ypres to the forward areas was extensive by late 1917 
  36.  Battle of Broodseinde 
  37.  The German bunkers at this point were set amongst farm buildings and were later to become the site of Tyne Cot Cemetery 
  38.  Toronto Camp (Brandhoek) – Map: 28NW3-3a -   Ref: G.18.a.3.7
  39. Hamburg Farm was a German strongpoint captured by …..–    Map: 28NE1 –   Ref: D.16.b.3.7 
  40. Until captured by the 44th Bn of the 3rd Australian Divn Seine House was the site of several German outposts and headquarters. Map 28 NE1 – Ref: D.16.d.3.5
  41.  The 72nd Bn Seaforth Highlanders of Canada 
  42. Pte Robert Tweddle (37852) enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  43.  Pte Noah Ellis (204334) was born in West Hall and enlisted in Elswick, Northumberland. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium
  44. Pte Michael White (35757) was born and enlisted in Hull. He served formerly with the West Yorks Regt. He is buried in Potijze Chateau Grounds Cemetery
  45.  L/Cpl Harry Horne (27/341) enlisted in Sunderland and is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  46. Pte Harry Kewley Cubbon (48014) was born in Arbory and enlisted in Douglas, Isle of Man. 08013 T Res AOC. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  47.  near Potijze 
  48. Bellevue Switch Line
  49.  The formation of Tunnelling Coys began in February 1915 in response to a German attack in December 1914, which had opened with the detonation of mines placed in tunnels beneath the British trenches. The men were tasked with digging tunnels to plant mines beneath enemy trenches, detecting and destroying enemy tunnels, digging trenches and saps etc 
  50. Seine -  Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.16.d.2.6 
  51.  Pte James Nesbitt (204608) was born at Seaham Harbour and enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  52.  Expert (Exert) Copse – Map: 28NE1 -   Ref: E.1.b.0.6
  53.  Mules were commonly used by the Bn transport sections to pull the ration limbers and field kitchens, where speed or strength was not so important. By 1916 half a million mules and horses were serving in France and Flanders 
  54.  The dustbin sized and shaped Soyer Stove was invented by the French Chef Alexis Soyer during the Crimean War and was still in use during the Gulf War of 1991 
  55. 60cm gauge light railway
  56. The 171st Tunnelling Coy was originally formed in 1915 from Welsh miners
  57.  Waterfields was an area to the north of Hamburg Farm through which the Ravebeek flowed. Overlapping shell holes no doubt caused the area to flood, hence the name - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.10.d.5.8
  58. 2/5th, 2/6th, 2/7th and 2/8th Manchester Regt, 199th (Manchester) Bde, 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Divn 
  59. Broodseinde - Passchendaele Ridge – 4th NF Sketch map A and Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 - Ref: D.17d.1.9 to D.23.c.7 
  60. The 16th (Newcastle Commercials) NF was disbanded at Elverdinghe on the 7th Feb 1918 
  61. Pte Robert William Nail (365282) (e. Blyth). Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  62.  Sgt Edward Hawkins (4/1008, 200130) (b. Newcastle)(e. Prudhoe). Was drafted from the 3/4th to 1/4th NF on 23 Oct 17. He is buried in Dochy Farm New British Cemetery, Langemark-Poelkappelle 
  63. Immersion Foot
  64. What was the foot powder - Borassic?  Used externally as a dusting powder and in solution as a cleansing and weakly antiseptic lotion
  65. Thames Farm was captured on the 4th of October 1917 and a nearby bunker was used as a Regimental Aid Post – Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 Ref: D.22.b.4.6
  66.  171st Tunnelling Coy Royal Engineers was composed of experienced  South Wales miners recruited from the territorial Bns of the Monmouthshire Regt and were first used on Hill 60 in 1915 www.rrw.org.uk/remember/j_spencer.htm 
  67. Eddy Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,  Ref: E.13.c.2.9
  68.  Borry Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,         Ref: D.25.b
  69. Wizernes is 5 km south west of St Omer 
  70.  The network of light railways from Ypres to the forward areas was extensive by late 1917 
  71.  Battle of Broodseinde 
  72.  The German bunkers at this point were set amongst farm buildings and were later to become the site of Tyne Cot Cemetery 
  73.  Toronto Camp (Brandhoek) – Map: 28NW3-3a -   Ref: G.18.a.3.7
  74. Hamburg Farm was a German strongpoint captured by …..–    Map: 28NE1 –   Ref: D.16.b.3.7 
  75. Until captured by the 44th Bn of the 3rd Australian Divn Seine House was the site of several German outposts and headquarters. Map 28 NE1 – Ref: D.16.d.3.5
  76.  The 72nd Bn Seaforth Highlanders of Canada 
  77. Pte Robert Tweddle (37852) enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  78.  Pte Noah Ellis (204334) was born in West Hall and enlisted in Elswick, Northumberland. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium
  79. Pte Michael White (35757) was born and enlisted in Hull. He served formerly with the West Yorks Regt. He is buried in Potijze Chateau Grounds Cemetery
  80.  L/Cpl Harry Horne (27/341) enlisted in Sunderland and is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  81. Pte Harry Kewley Cubbon (48014) was born in Arbory and enlisted in Douglas, Isle of Man. 08013 T Res AOC. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  82.  near Potijze 
  83. Bellevue Switch Line
  84.  The formation of Tunnelling Coys began in February 1915 in response to a German attack in December 1914, which had opened with the detonation of mines placed in tunnels beneath the British trenches. The men were tasked with digging tunnels to plant mines beneath enemy trenches, detecting and destroying enemy tunnels, digging trenches and saps etc 
  85. Seine -  Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.16.d.2.6 
  86.  Pte James Nesbitt (204608) was born at Seaham Harbour and enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  87.  Expert (Exert) Copse – Map: 28NE1 -   Ref: E.1.b.0.6
  88.  Mules were commonly used by the Bn transport sections to pull the ration limbers and field kitchens, where speed or strength was not so important. By 1916 half a million mules and horses were serving in France and Flanders 
  89.  The dustbin sized and shaped Soyer Stove was invented by the French Chef Alexis Soyer during the Crimean War and was still in use during the Gulf War of 1991 
  90. 60cm gauge light railway
  91. The 171st Tunnelling Coy was originally formed in 1915 from Welsh miners
  92.  Waterfields was an area to the north of Hamburg Farm through which the Ravebeek flowed. Overlapping shell holes no doubt caused the area to flood, hence the name - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.10.d.5.8
  93. 2/5th, 2/6th, 2/7th and 2/8th Manchester Regt, 199th (Manchester) Bde, 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Divn 
  94. Broodseinde - Passchendaele Ridge – 4th NF Sketch map A and Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 - Ref: D.17d.1.9 to D.23.c.7 
  95. The 16th (Newcastle Commercials) NF was disbanded at Elverdinghe on the 7th Feb 1918 
  96. Pte Robert William Nail (365282) (e. Blyth). Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  97.  Sgt Edward Hawkins (4/1008, 200130) (b. Newcastle)(e. Prudhoe). Was drafted from the 3/4th to 1/4th NF on 23 Oct 17. He is buried in Dochy Farm New British Cemetery, Langemark-Poelkappelle 
  98. Immersion Foot
  99. What was the foot powder - Borassic?  Used externally as a dusting powder and in solution as a cleansing and weakly antiseptic lotion
  100. Thames Farm was captured on the 4th of October 1917 and a nearby bunker was used as a Regimental Aid Post – Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 Ref: D.22.b.4.6
  101.  171st Tunnelling Coy Royal Engineers was composed of experienced  South Wales miners recruited from the territorial Bns of the Monmouthshire Regt and were first used on Hill 60 in 1915 www.rrw.org.uk/remember/j_spencer.htm 
  102. Eddy Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,  Ref: E.13.c.2.9
  103.  Borry Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,         Ref: D.25.b
  104. Wizernes is 5 km south west of St Omer 
  105.  The network of light railways from Ypres to the forward areas was extensive by late 1917 
  106.  Battle of Broodseinde 
  107.  The German bunkers at this point were set amongst farm buildings and were later to become the site of Tyne Cot Cemetery 
  108.  Toronto Camp (Brandhoek) – Map: 28NW3-3a -   Ref: G.18.a.3.7
  109. Hamburg Farm was a German strongpoint captured by …..–    Map: 28NE1 –   Ref: D.16.b.3.7 
  110. Until captured by the 44th Bn of the 3rd Australian Divn Seine House was the site of several German outposts and headquarters. Map 28 NE1 – Ref: D.16.d.3.5
  111.  The 72nd Bn Seaforth Highlanders of Canada 
  112. Pte Robert Tweddle (37852) enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  113.  Pte Noah Ellis (204334) was born in West Hall and enlisted in Elswick, Northumberland. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium
  114. Pte Michael White (35757) was born and enlisted in Hull. He served formerly with the West Yorks Regt. He is buried in Potijze Chateau Grounds Cemetery
  115.  L/Cpl Harry Horne (27/341) enlisted in Sunderland and is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  116. Pte Harry Kewley Cubbon (48014) was born in Arbory and enlisted in Douglas, Isle of Man. 08013 T Res AOC. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  117.  near Potijze 
  118. Bellevue Switch Line
  119.  The formation of Tunnelling Coys began in February 1915 in response to a German attack in December 1914, which had opened with the detonation of mines placed in tunnels beneath the British trenches. The men were tasked with digging tunnels to plant mines beneath enemy trenches, detecting and destroying enemy tunnels, digging trenches and saps etc 
  120. Seine -  Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.16.d.2.6 
  121.  Pte James Nesbitt (204608) was born at Seaham Harbour and enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  122.  Expert (Exert) Copse – Map: 28NE1 -   Ref: E.1.b.0.6
  123.  Mules were commonly used by the Bn transport sections to pull the ration limbers and field kitchens, where speed or strength was not so important. By 1916 half a million mules and horses were serving in France and Flanders 
  124.  The dustbin sized and shaped Soyer Stove was invented by the French Chef Alexis Soyer during the Crimean War and was still in use during the Gulf War of 1991 
  125. 60cm gauge light railway
  126. The 171st Tunnelling Coy was originally formed in 1915 from Welsh miners
  127.  Waterfields was an area to the north of Hamburg Farm through which the Ravebeek flowed. Overlapping shell holes no doubt caused the area to flood, hence the name - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.10.d.5.8
  128. 2/5th, 2/6th, 2/7th and 2/8th Manchester Regt, 199th (Manchester) Bde, 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Divn 
  129. Broodseinde - Passchendaele Ridge – 4th NF Sketch map A and Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 - Ref: D.17d.1.9 to D.23.c.7 
  130. The 16th (Newcastle Commercials) NF was disbanded at Elverdinghe on the 7th Feb 1918 
  131. Pte Robert William Nail (365282) (e. Blyth). Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  132.  Sgt Edward Hawkins (4/1008, 200130) (b. Newcastle)(e. Prudhoe). Was drafted from the 3/4th to 1/4th NF on 23 Oct 17. He is buried in Dochy Farm New British Cemetery, Langemark-Poelkappelle 
  133. Immersion Foot
  134. What was the foot powder - Borassic?  Used externally as a dusting powder and in solution as a cleansing and weakly antiseptic lotion
  135. Thames Farm was captured on the 4th of October 1917 and a nearby bunker was used as a Regimental Aid Post – Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 Ref: D.22.b.4.6
  136.  171st Tunnelling Coy Royal Engineers was composed of experienced  South Wales miners recruited from the territorial Bns of the Monmouthshire Regt and were first used on Hill 60 in 1915 www.rrw.org.uk/remember/j_spencer.htm 
  137. Eddy Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,  Ref: E.13.c.2.9
  138.  Borry Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,         Ref: D.25.b
  139. Wizernes is 5 km south west of St Omer 
  140.  The network of light railways from Ypres to the forward areas was extensive by late 1917 
  141.  Battle of Broodseinde 
  142.  The German bunkers at this point were set amongst farm buildings and were later to become the site of Tyne Cot Cemetery 
  143.  Toronto Camp (Brandhoek) – Map: 28NW3-3a -   Ref: G.18.a.3.7
  144. Hamburg Farm was a German strongpoint captured by …..–    Map: 28NE1 –   Ref: D.16.b.3.7 
  145. Until captured by the 44th Bn of the 3rd Australian Divn Seine House was the site of several German outposts and headquarters. Map 28 NE1 – Ref: D.16.d.3.5
  146.  The 72nd Bn Seaforth Highlanders of Canada 
  147. Pte Robert Tweddle (37852) enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  148.  Pte Noah Ellis (204334) was born in West Hall and enlisted in Elswick, Northumberland. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium
  149. Pte Michael White (35757) was born and enlisted in Hull. He served formerly with the West Yorks Regt. He is buried in Potijze Chateau Grounds Cemetery
  150.  L/Cpl Harry Horne (27/341) enlisted in Sunderland and is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  151. Pte Harry Kewley Cubbon (48014) was born in Arbory and enlisted in Douglas, Isle of Man. 08013 T Res AOC. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  152.  near Potijze 
  153. Bellevue Switch Line
  154.  The formation of Tunnelling Coys began in February 1915 in response to a German attack in December 1914, which had opened with the detonation of mines placed in tunnels beneath the British trenches. The men were tasked with digging tunnels to plant mines beneath enemy trenches, detecting and destroying enemy tunnels, digging trenches and saps etc 
  155. Seine -  Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.16.d.2.6 
  156.  Pte James Nesbitt (204608) was born at Seaham Harbour and enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  157.  Expert (Exert) Copse – Map: 28NE1 -   Ref: E.1.b.0.6
  158.  Mules were commonly used by the Bn transport sections to pull the ration limbers and field kitchens, where speed or strength was not so important. By 1916 half a million mules and horses were serving in France and Flanders 
  159.  The dustbin sized and shaped Soyer Stove was invented by the French Chef Alexis Soyer during the Crimean War and was still in use during the Gulf War of 1991 
  160. 60cm gauge light railway
  161. The 171st Tunnelling Coy was originally formed in 1915 from Welsh miners
  162.  Waterfields was an area to the north of Hamburg Farm through which the Ravebeek flowed. Overlapping shell holes no doubt caused the area to flood, hence the name - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.10.d.5.8
  163. 2/5th, 2/6th, 2/7th and 2/8th Manchester Regt, 199th (Manchester) Bde, 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Divn 
  164. Broodseinde - Passchendaele Ridge – 4th NF Sketch map A and Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 - Ref: D.17d.1.9 to D.23.c.7 
  165. The 16th (Newcastle Commercials) NF was disbanded at Elverdinghe on the 7th Feb 1918 
  166. Pte Robert William Nail (365282) (e. Blyth). Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  167.  Sgt Edward Hawkins (4/1008, 200130) (b. Newcastle)(e. Prudhoe). Was drafted from the 3/4th to 1/4th NF on 23 Oct 17. He is buried in Dochy Farm New British Cemetery, Langemark-Poelkappelle 
  168. Immersion Foot
  169. What was the foot powder - Borassic?  Used externally as a dusting powder and in solution as a cleansing and weakly antiseptic lotion
  170. Thames Farm was captured on the 4th of October 1917 and a nearby bunker was used as a Regimental Aid Post – Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 Ref: D.22.b.4.6
  171.  171st Tunnelling Coy Royal Engineers was composed of experienced  South Wales miners recruited from the territorial Bns of the Monmouthshire Regt and were first used on Hill 60 in 1915 www.rrw.org.uk/remember/j_spencer.htm 
  172. Eddy Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,  Ref: E.13.c.2.9
  173.  Borry Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,         Ref: D.25.b
  174. Wizernes is 5 km south west of St Omer 
  175.  The network of light railways from Ypres to the forward areas was extensive by late 1917 
  176.  Battle of Broodseinde 
  177.  The German bunkers at this point were set amongst farm buildings and were later to become the site of Tyne Cot Cemetery 
  178.  Toronto Camp (Brandhoek) – Map: 28NW3-3a -   Ref: G.18.a.3.7
  179. Hamburg Farm was a German strongpoint captured by …..–    Map: 28NE1 –   Ref: D.16.b.3.7 
  180. Until captured by the 44th Bn of the 3rd Australian Divn Seine House was the site of several German outposts and headquarters. Map 28 NE1 – Ref: D.16.d.3.5
  181.  The 72nd Bn Seaforth Highlanders of Canada 
  182. Pte Robert Tweddle (37852) enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  183.  Pte Noah Ellis (204334) was born in West Hall and enlisted in Elswick, Northumberland. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium
  184. Pte Michael White (35757) was born and enlisted in Hull. He served formerly with the West Yorks Regt. He is buried in Potijze Chateau Grounds Cemetery
  185.  L/Cpl Harry Horne (27/341) enlisted in Sunderland and is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  186. Pte Harry Kewley Cubbon (48014) was born in Arbory and enlisted in Douglas, Isle of Man. 08013 T Res AOC. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  187.  near Potijze 
  188. Bellevue Switch Line
  189.  The formation of Tunnelling Coys began in February 1915 in response to a German attack in December 1914, which had opened with the detonation of mines placed in tunnels beneath the British trenches. The men were tasked with digging tunnels to plant mines beneath enemy trenches, detecting and destroying enemy tunnels, digging trenches and saps etc 
  190. Seine -  Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.16.d.2.6 
  191.  Pte James Nesbitt (204608) was born at Seaham Harbour and enlisted in Newcastle. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Belgium 
  192.  Expert (Exert) Copse – Map: 28NE1 -   Ref: E.1.b.0.6
  193.  Mules were commonly used by the Bn transport sections to pull the ration limbers and field kitchens, where speed or strength was not so important. By 1916 half a million mules and horses were serving in France and Flanders 
  194.  The dustbin sized and shaped Soyer Stove was invented by the French Chef Alexis Soyer during the Crimean War and was still in use during the Gulf War of 1991 
  195. 60cm gauge light railway
  196. The 171st Tunnelling Coy was originally formed in 1915 from Welsh miners
  197.  Waterfields was an area to the north of Hamburg Farm through which the Ravebeek flowed. Overlapping shell holes no doubt caused the area to flood, hence the name - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1          Ref: D.10.d.5.8
  198. 2/5th, 2/6th, 2/7th and 2/8th Manchester Regt, 199th (Manchester) Bde, 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Divn 
  199. Broodseinde - Passchendaele Ridge – 4th NF Sketch map A and Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 - Ref: D.17d.1.9 to D.23.c.7 
  200. The 16th (Newcastle Commercials) NF was disbanded at Elverdinghe on the 7th Feb 1918 
  201. Pte Robert William Nail (365282) (e. Blyth). Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, West Vlaanderen, Belgium
  202.  Sgt Edward Hawkins (4/1008, 200130) (b. Newcastle)(e. Prudhoe). Was drafted from the 3/4th to 1/4th NF on 23 Oct 17. He is buried in Dochy Farm New British Cemetery, Langemark-Poelkappelle 
  203. Immersion Foot
  204. What was the foot powder - Borassic?  Used externally as a dusting powder and in solution as a cleansing and weakly antiseptic lotion
  205. Thames Farm was captured on the 4th of October 1917 and a nearby bunker was used as a Regimental Aid Post – Zonnebeke map: 28NE1 Ref: D.22.b.4.6
  206.  171st Tunnelling Coy Royal Engineers was composed of experienced  South Wales miners recruited from the territorial Bns of the Monmouthshire Regt and were first used on Hill 60 in 1915 www.rrw.org.uk/remember/j_spencer.htm 
  207. Eddy Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,  Ref: E.13.c.2.9
  208.  Borry Farm - Zonnebeke map: 28NE1,         Ref: D.25.b
  209. Wizernes is 5 km south west of St Omer 
  210.  The network of light railways from Ypres to the forward areas was extensive by late 1917